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The purpose of this study was to determine the difference in the level of conceptual knowledge of integers and fractions held by Zambian primary school pupils. This was envisaged by first determining their knowledge levels differences of fractions and integers based on gender. Secondly, we attempted to determine their knowledge levels by comparing their achievement levels in integers and fractions. Data were collected form a total of 100 male and female grade 5 and 6 primary school pupils in Kapiri Mposhi district of central province of Zambia. To accomplish this purpose we employed two analysis techniques, the independent samples t-test and the paired samples t-test. Results of the independent samples t-test revealed that there was a significant difference in the level of knowledge of integers held by Zambian primary school pupils when analysed by gender with male pupils exhibiting higher knowledge level than their female counterparts. However, it was also revealed that gender had no significant effect on the level of knowledge of fractions held by the pupils. It was also revealed by results of the dependent samples t-test that there was a significant difference in pupils’ achievement between fractions and integers. The pupils exhibited high achievement levels in the pencil and paper test on fractions than they did on a similar test on integers. This implied that the pupils had superior conceptual knowledge of fraction when compared with fractions.