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The study assessed the diversity of the indigenous tree species and also produce of a compendium of information on the various medicinal uses of the indigenous tree species and their parts in Bagale Hill Forest Reserve, Girei Local Government of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Sample plots method was used in the assessment of the indigenous tree species using the simple random sampling technique. Five plots measuring 50 m x 50 m were selected within the study site. All matured trees within the plots were identified and a total count of them was carried out. Information on ethonomedicinal uses of indigenous trees was obtained through oral interviews Focus Group Discussion (FGD). Five (5) communities out of Fifteen (15) were randomly selected for this purpose. Result of the findings indicated that 38 indigenous trees species belonging to 15 families were encountered in all the five (5) plots inventoried in the study site. Results further indicate that Hexalobus monopetalus, Piliostigma thonningii, Prosopis africana, Acacia ataxacantha and Grewia molis were common to all the sites. Annona senegalensis, Detarrium microcarpum, Terminalia glaucescens, Hymenocardia acida and Ficus sycomorus were common to four site in the study area while all other species were found in either three, two or one area of the study site. Shannon Diversity Index 2.709, 3.124, 2.614, 2.551 and 2.958 respectively for sites A to E, Simpson Diversity Index stood at 0.925, 0.9467, 0.908, 0.9091 and 0.9304, Dominance stood at 0.075, 0.05332, 0.9201, 0.09091 and 0.0696, Evenness index were 0.8835, 0.7841, 0.8028, 0.8546 and 0.7706 while Equitability Index stood at 0.9563, 0.9278, 0.9225, 0.942 and 0.9191 respectively. The various families encountered were; Anacaediaceae, Annonaceae, Balanitaceae, Bombacaceae, Burseraceae, Caesalpinioideae, Capparaceae, Combretaceae, Flacourtiaceae, Hymenocardiaceae, Mimosoideae, Moraceae, Sapotaceae, Tiliaceae and Verbenaceae. The plant parts used for medicinal purposes are roots, barks, leaves, stems, Epiphyte etc. The formulation for medication include; boiling, soaking, etc. Methods of administration include, drinking, bathing, adding to food as spices and chewing. Among the ailments treated are dysentery, diarrhea, diabetes, Tuberculosis, Meningities, Blood tonic, High blood Pressure, Worms, Typhoid Fever, Cancer, Malnutrition, Tumors, Wound Healing, Jaundice, Epilepsy and Rheumatism. It can be thus be concluded that the sharp decrease in biological tree species across the globe and the increasing economic values placed on medicinal plants, documentation on ethnobatanical knowledge is a way to understand the use of different plant species to cure various ailments and means to conserve these natural resources. From the findings of the study the following recommendations are hereby made; the local people need to be trained, encouraged and supported on how to conserve and manage the medicinal plant species, Young generation need awareness to avoid negative impacts on the medicinal plants and associated knowledge in the area, hence, documentation of the medicinal plants of the area needs to continue.
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