Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Life Science, Jain University, Bengaluru, India.


Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Life Science, Jain University, Bengaluru, India.


Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Life Science, Jain University, Bengaluru, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Epe district is a town located on the north side of Lekki, Lagos state. Epe’s temperature ranges from about 40 to 70 degrees centigrade. Considering humidity, temperature peaks high most of the time. The months with the highest temperatures are February, March, and April. And the rainy seasons start from June to September. The sample solid waste materials considered for this study were chopped and weighed approximately 3.0 to 3.5 Kgs, were mostly taken from the Epe district and then moved to a garden where it was let to decompose for 4 weeks. The soil test sample that was used weighed approximately 2.5 to 3.0kgs and was taken to the laboratory for further investigation for the presence of bacteria. Objective: The goal of the study includes the extraction of the Solid waste sample and isolation of B. subtilis bacteria. Other bacillus species like Pseudomonas spp, B. cereus, Bacillus subtilis, E. coli, and B. thuringiensis. were found in the sample. According to previous research, B. subtilis has been found to produce cellulase enzymes that degrade cellulose into sugars. Agriculture wastes like rice straw and husk, maize, wheat, woodchips, and other agricultural waste are rich in cellulose. Other enzymes like pectinase and lignin peroxidase are found in bacteria that degrade complex components like cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in agricultural waste. The B. subtilis was bacteria of interest whereby isolation was done by screening microorganisms producing cellulase using CMC agar. Then identification of the bacterial isolate was done through morphological and physiological characterization and identifying the genus level according to Bergey’s Manual of Determination Bacteriology (8th edition). API strips (20E kit) were used in identifying gram-positive bacteria.


Keywords: Solid waste, enzyme, bacteria, fungi, cellulose

How to Cite

OMOIKHOJE, I. D., NEPAL, K., & KARANI, G. (2022). ISOLATION OF Bacillus subtilis CAPABLE OF DEGRADING AGRICULTURAL WASTES. Asian Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 7(1), 17–27.


Download data is not yet available.


Williams ST, Cross T, Actinomycetes, methods in microbiology. Academic Press, New York; 1971.

Pacarynuk LA, Danyk HC, Biochemical Tests. In: Principles of Microbiology, Laboratory Manual, Spring, TX, USA. 2004;28-34.

Govan JRW, Gillies RR, Further studies in the pyocine typing of Pseudomonas pyocyanea. J Med Microbial. 1969;2:1:17-25.

Burd G, Dixon DG, Glick BR. Plant growth promoting bacteria that decrease heavymetal toxicity in plants. Can J Microbiol. 2000;46:237–245.

Zaidi S, Usmani S, Singh BR, Musarrat J. Significance of Bacillus subtilis strains SJ-101 as a bioinoculant for concurrent plant growth promotion and nickel accumulation in Brassica juncea. Chemosphere. 2008;64:991–997.

Cooper KE , Theory of antibiotic inhibition zones in agar media. Nature. 1955;176:4480:510-511.

Mohawed SM, Kassim EA, Shahed AS, Studies on the effect of different pH values, vitamins, indoles and gibberellic on the production of lipase by Aspergillus althecias. Agric. Wastes. 1986;17:4:307-312.

Jackson ML Soil Chemical Analysis. Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi, India. 1973;1st edn.

AWPA: American Wood Preservers Association Standards, Books of standards, Stevensville, Maryland, USA; 1986.

Walkey A, Black IA. An examination of the Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Science. 1934;37:1:29-38.

Bremner JM. Determination of nitrogen in soil by the Kjeldahl method. Journal Agricultural Science. 1960;55:1:11-33.

Alexander M, Introduction to soil microbiology. John Wiley and Sons Inc, New York, USA; 1977: 2nd edn.

Zhuang XL, Chen J, Shim H, Bai Z. New advances in plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria for bioremediation. Environ Int. 2007;33:406–413.

Nakano MM, Zuber P, Molecular biology of antibiotic production in Bacillus. Crit Rev Biotechnol, 1990;10(3):223-240.

Patil M, Shastri NV, Extracellular proteases by Alternasia alternater (Fr.). J Ferment Technol, 1981;59:5:403-406.

Gillers RR, Govan JRW, Typical of Pseudomonas pyocyanea by pyocine production. J Path Bact. 1966; 91: 33.

Shiferaw B, Bantilan MCS, Serraj R. Harnessing the potential of BNF for poor farmers: technological policy and institutional constraints and research need. In: Serraj R (ed) Symbiotic nitrogen fixation; prospects for enhanced application in tropical agriculture. Oxford & IBH, New Delhi. 2004; 3.

Collins CH, Lyne PM, Grange JM, Microbiological Methods. Butterworth, London. 1989;6th edn.

Matiru VN, Dakora FD. Potential use of rhizobial bacteria as promoters of plant growth for increased yield in landraces of African cereal crops. Afr J Biotechnol. 2004;3(1):1–7.

Berkeley RCW, Campbelt R, Microbial nutrition and the influence of environmental factors on microbial growth and other activities. In: Microorganism: function, form and environment. Hawker LE & Linton AH (Eds.), Edward Arnold Publisher limited, London; 1972.

Davison J. Plant beneficial bacteria. Biotechnology. 1988;6:282–286.

Brierley JA. Use of microorganisms for mining metals. In: Halvorson HO, Pramer D, Rogul M (eds) Engineered organisims in the environment: scientifc issues. ASM Press, Washington. 1985;141–146.

Middledrop PJM, Briglia M, Salkinoja-Salonen M. Biodegradation of pentachlorophenol in natural polluted soil by inoculated Rhodococcus chlorophenolicus. Microb Ecol. 1990;20:123–139.

Kim YK, Lee SC, Cho YY, Oh HJ, Ko YH. Isolation of cellulolytic Bacillus subtilis strains from agricultural environments. International Scholarly Research Notices; 2012.

Pant G, Prakash A, Pavani JVP, Bera S, Deviram GVNS, Kumar A, Prasuna RG. Production, optimization and partial purification of protease from Bacillus subtilis. Journal of Taibah University for Science. 2015;9(1):50-55.

Hayat R, Ali S, Amara U, Khalid R, Ahmed I. Soil beneficial bacteria and their role in plant growth promotion: a review. Annals of Microbiology. 2010;60(4):579-598.

Ehrlich HL. Geomicrobiology, 2nd edn. Dekker, New York. 1990;646.

Du G, Zhang G, Shi J, Zhang J, Ma Z, Liu X, Yuan C, Li X, Zhang B. Keystone Taxa lactiplantibacillus and Lacticaseibacillus directly improve the ensiling performance and microbiota profile in co-ensiling cabbage byproduct and rice straw. Microorganisms. 2021;9(5):1099. DOI:

Zaved HK, Rahman MM, Rahman MM, Rahman A, Arafat SMY, et al. Isolation and characterization of effective bacteria for solidwaste degradation for organic manure. KMITL Sci Tech J. 2008;8:2:844-855.

Starcher B. A ninhydrin-based assay to quantitate the total protein content of tissue samples. Analytical Biochemistry. 2001; 292(1):125-129.