Seroprevalence of Human Cytomegalovirus IgG among Pregnant Females Visiting Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics in Taiz City, Yemen


Published: 2023-08-09

DOI: 10.56557/ajmab/2023/v8i28338

Page: 52-61

Waddah Khalid Ghaleb Obaid Al-Faqih

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Taiz University, Yemen.

Ali Sallam

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Taiz University, Yemen.

Ashwaq Ahmed Abdullah *

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Taiz University, Yemen.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a common herpesvirus that affects nearly everyone. HCMV is a large an enveloped double-stranded DNA virus that belongs to the betaerpesvirinae subfamily. HCMV can be transmitted horizontally through the secretion of body or body fluids from person to person, or vertically from mother to child during primary infection. In this study, two hundred samples were collected from pregnant females that were visited three of obstetrics and gynecology clinics in Taiz city. Their ages ranged between (16-45) years. Samples were examined by using anti HCMV IgG ELISA kit.  Anti-HCMV IgG positivity was found in 196 of the 200 (98%) of pregnant females tested, while only four of pregnant females were negative for anti-HCMV IgG antibodies. The highest rate of anti-HCMV IgG seropositivity was found among 31-35 and 41-45 age groups. 100% of third trimester pregnant females were seropositive to anti-HCMV IgG, while abortion was reported in 98.18% of seropositive pregnant females. Highest seroprevalence was among unemployed and non-educated females. Both females at urban and rural area are at risk of HCMV infection. The current study found a very high seroprevalence of anti-HCMV IgG antibody among Yemeni pregnant women in Taiz city. The good sanitation, proper diagnosis, education, and the development of vaccines and antiviral therapies may all aid in the control of HCMV-related congenital infection.

Keywords: Human cytomegalovirus, HCMV, herpesvirus, pregnant female, Taiz, Yemen

How to Cite

Al-Faqih , W. K. G. O., Sallam , A., & Abdullah , A. A. (2023). Seroprevalence of Human Cytomegalovirus IgG among Pregnant Females Visiting Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics in Taiz City, Yemen. Asian Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 8(2), 52–61.


Download data is not yet available.


Gordon CL. T Cell Immunity To Cytomegalovirus In Health, Transplantation And Novel Vaccines, in Department of Medicine Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences. The University of Melbourne: Austin; 2018.

Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F. Clinical virology. Clinical virology; 2016.

Burrell CJ, Howard CR, Murphy FA. Fenner and white's medical virology. London, United Kingdom: Academic Press; 2016.

De Paschale M, et al. Incidence and risk of cytomegalovirus infection during pregnancy in an urban area of Northern Italy. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2009;2009:206505.

Onorato IM, et al. Epidemiology of cytomegaloviral infections: recommenda-tions for prevention and control. Reviews of infectious diseases, 1985;7(4):479-497.

Louten J. Essential Human Virology. Kennesaw, United States: Elsevier Science; 2016.

Sund F. Cytomegalovirus Infection in Immunocompetent and Renal Transplant Patients, in Medical science. Uppsala University: Uppsala, Sweden; 2008.

Wang C, et al. Attribution of congenital cytomegalovirus infection to primary versus non-primary maternal infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;52(2):e11-3.

Razonable R, Humar A, AID C.o. Practice, Cytomegalovirus in solid organ transplantation. American Journal of Transplantation. 2013;13(s4):93-106.

Camargo JF, Komanduri KV. Emerging concepts in cytomegalovirus infection following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Hematology/oncology and stem cell therapy. 2017;10(4):233-238.

Halenius A, Hengel H. Human cytomegalovirus and autoimmune disease. BioMed research international. 2014;2014.

Hoshino Y, et al. Protection from Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)-2 Infection with Replication-Defective HSV-2 or Glycoprotein D2 Vaccines in HSV-1- Seropositive and HSV-1;Seronegative Guinea Pigs. The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2009;200(7):1088-1095.

Lazzarotto T, et al., New advances in the diagnosis of congenital cytomegalovirus infection. Journal of Clinical Virology. 2008;41(3):192-197.

Naqid IA, Yousif SH, Hussein NR. Serological Study of IgG and IgM Antibodies to Cytomegalovirus and Toxoplasma Infections in Pregnant Women in Zakho City, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Women’s Health Bulletin. 2019;6(4):8-12.

Cannon MJ, Schmid DS, Hyde TB. Review of cytomegalovirus seroprevalence and demographic characteristics associated with infection. Reviews in Medical Virology. 2010;20(4):202-213.

Pinninti SG, et al. Comparison of saliva PCR assay versus rapid culture for detection of congenital cytomegalovirus infection. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 2015;34(5):536.

Luxembourg AT, Cooper NR. Modulation of signaling via the B cell antigen receptor by CD21, the receptor for C3dg and EBV. The Journal of Immunology. 1994;153(10): 4448-4457.

Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F. Cytomegalovirus, in Clinical virology. ASM Press Washington, DC, USA. 2016;481.

Asanuma H, et al. Role of milk whey in the transmission of human cytomegalovirus infection by breast milk. Microbiology and Immunology. 1996;40(3):201-204.

Dollard SC, Grosse SD, Ross DS. New estimates of the prevalence of neurological and sensory sequelae and mortality associated with congenital cytomegalovirus infection. Reviews in Medical Virology. 2007;17(5):355-363.

Yamamoto A, et al. Early high CMV seroprevalence in pregnant women from a population with a high rate of congenital infection. Epidemiology & Infection. 2013;141(10):2187-2191.

Zuhair M, et al. Estimation of the worldwide seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus: A systematic review and meta‐analysis. Reviews in Medical Virology. 2019;29(3):e2034.

Antona D, et al., Seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus infection in France in 2010. Epidemiology & Infection. 2017; 145(7):1471-1478.

Davis NL, King CC, Kourtis AP. Cytomegalovirus infection in pregnancy. Birth Defects Research. 2017;109(5):336-346.

Logan S, Tookey P, Peckham C. Antenatal and newborn screening for cytomegalovirus. Report of the working party, National Screening Committee (NSC), London, UK; 2000.

Malm G, Engman ML. Congenital cytomegalovirus infections. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 2007; 12(3):154-9.

Colugnati FAB, et al. Incidence of cytomegalovirus infection among the general population and pregnant women in the United States. BMC Infectious Diseases. 2007;7:71-71.

Gambarotto K, et al., [Primary cytomegalovirus infection and pregnant women: epidemiological study on 1100 women at Limoges]. Pathol Biol (Paris). 1997;45(6):453-61.

Ghazi HO, Telmesani AM, Mahomed MF. TORCH agents in pregnant Saudi women. Medical Principles and Practice. 2002;11(4):180-182.

Abu-Madi MA, Behnke JM, Dabritz HA. Toxoplasma gondii seropositivity and co-infection with TORCH pathogens in high-risk patients from Qatar. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2010;82(4):626-633.

AlKhawaja S, et al. The prevalence of congenital and perinatal cytomegalovirus infections among newborns of seropositive mothers. The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries. 2012;6(05): 410-415.

Neirukh T, et al. Seroprevalence of Cytomegalovirus among pregnant women and hospitalized children in Palestine. BMC Infectious Diseases. 2013;13(1):1-7.

AL-Jurani AHH. Seroprevalence of Anti-Cytomegalovirus IgM, IgG antibodies among pregnant women in Diyala province. Diyala Journal for Pure Science. 2014;10(2-part 2):116-122.

Al-Samawi. Prevalence of human cytomegalovirus in Yemen., in Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Sana’a University: Yemen; 2003.

Edrees A. Prevalence Cytomegalovirus antibodies among pregnant women and newborns in the hospital president in Jebla, Ibb in Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health. Sana’a University: Yemen; 2010.

Alghalibi SM, et al. Seroprevalence of Cytomegalovirus among Pregnant Women in Hodeidah city, Yemen. Journal of Human Virol & Retrovirol. 2016;3(5): 00106.

Alsumairy H, et al. Seroprevalence and risk of primary maternal HCMV infection among pregnant women in Taiz City, Yemen. Asian Journal of Medicine and Health. 2016;1-7.

Poole E, Wills M, Sinclair J. Human cytomegalovirus latency: targeting differences in the latently infected cell with a view to clearing latent infection. New Journal of Science;2014.

Arski EST, Pass R. Cytomegaloviruses. In: Fields of virology (Knipe, D. and Howley, p. ed.). 5th ed. Lippincott. Philadelphia; 2007.

Schleiss MR, Permar SR, Plotkin SA. Progress toward Development of a Vaccine against Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection. Clinical and vaccine immunology: CVI, 2017;24(12): e00268-17.

Hodson EM, et al. Antiviral medications to prevent cytomegalovirus disease and early death in recipients of solid-organ transplants: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials. The Lancet. 2005;365(9477):2105-2115.

Goodrich J, Drevets D, Mylonakis E. Cytomegalovirus. Medicine Instant Access to the Minds of Medicine; 2004.

Gratama JW, et al. Monitoring cytomegalovirus IE‐1 and pp65‐specific CD4+ and CD8+ T‐cell responses after allogeneic stem cell transplantation may identify patients at risk for recurrent CMV reactivations. Cytometry Part B: Clinical Cytometry: The Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology. 2008; 74(4):211-220.

Alghalibi SM, et al., Seroprevalence of Cytomegalovirus among Pregnant Women in Hodeidah city, Yemen. J Hum Virol Retrovirol. 2016;3(5):00106.

Almaghrabi MK, et al., Seroprevalence of Human Cytomegalovirus in Pregnant Women in the Asir Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Intervirology. 2019;62(5-6):205-209.

Khairi S, et al. Seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus infection among pregnant women at Omdurman Maternity Hospital, Sudan. Journal of Medical Laboratory and Diagnosis. 2013;4(4):45-49.

Kamel N, et al. Primary cytomegalovirus infection in pregnant Egyptian women confirmed by cytomegalovirus IgG avidity testing. Medical Principles and Practice. 2014;23(1):29-33.

Hannachi N, et al. Seroprevalence of rubella virus, varicella zoster virus, cytomegalovirus and parvovirus B19 among pregnant women in the Sousse region, Tunisia. Bulletin de la Societe de pathologie exotique (1990). 2011; 104(1):62-67.

Moniri R, et al. Prevalence of serum antibodies to TORCH infection in the first trimester of the pregnancy in Kashan, Iran. Iranian Journal of Neonatology IJN. 2015; 6(1):8-12.

Mujtaba G, et al., Distribution of cytomegalovirus genotypes among neonates born to infected mothers in Islamabad, Pakistan. PLoS One. 2016; 11(7):e0156049.

Parlak M, et al. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma, Rubella, and Cytomegalovirus among pregnant women in Van. Turkish journal of obstetrics and gynecology. 2015;12(2):79.

Choi R, et al. Seroprevalence of CMV IgG and IgM in Korean women of childbearing age. Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis. 2021;35(4):e23716.

Mamuye Y, et al. Seroprevalence and Absence of Cytomegalovirus Infection Risk Factors among Pregnant Women in St. Paul’s Hospital Millennium Medical College. Gynecol Obstet (Sunnyvale), 2015;5(299): 2161-0932.1000.

Paschale MD, et al. Incidence and risk of cytomegalovirus infection during pregnancy in an urban area of Northern Italy. Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2009;2009:5.

Yeroh M, Aminu M, Musa B. Seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus infection amongst pregnant women in Kaduna state, Nigeria. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology. 2015;16(1):37-44.

Hamdan HZ, et al. Seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus and rubella among pregnant women in western Sudan. Virology Journal. 2011;8(1):1-4.

Shigemi D, et al. Seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus IgG antibodies among pregnant women in Japan from 2009-2014. American journal of Infection Control. 2015;43(11):1218-1221.

Basha J, et al. Congenital cytomegalovirus infection is associated with high maternal socio‐economic status and corresponding low maternal cytomegalovirus seropositivity. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health. 2014;50(5):368-372.

Pembrey L, et al. Seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus, Epstein Barr virus and varicella zoster virus among pregnant women in Bradford: a cohort study. PloS one. 2013;8(11):e81881.

N’diaye DS, et al. Predictive factors of cytomegalovirus seropositivity among pregnant women in Paris, France. PLoS One. 2014;9(2):e89857.

Enders G, et al. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) seroprevalence in pregnant women, bone marrow donors and adolescents in Germany, 1996–2010. Medical Microbiology and Immunology. 2012; 201(3):303-309.

Wujcicka W, et al. Impact of socioeconomic risk factors on the seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus infections in a cohort of pregnant Polish women between 2010 and 2011. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases. 2014;33(11):1951-1958.

Leuridan E, et al. High susceptibility to cytomegalovirus infection of pregnant women in Flanders, Belgium. Facts, views & vision in ObGyn. 2012;4(2):76.

Alvarado-Esquivel C, et al. Seroepidemiology of cytomegalovirus infection in pregnant women in Durango City, Mexico. BMC Infectious Diseases. 2014;14(1):1-5.

Guerra B, et al. Impact of diagnostic and confirmatory tests and prenatal counseling on the rate of pregnancy termination among women with positive cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin M antibody titers. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2007;196(3): 221.e1-221. e6.

Olatunji M, Oluwajana E. Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Human Cytomegalovirus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Coinfection in Pregnant Women in Ilorin, Nigeria. Covenant Journal of Physical and Life Sciences. 2017;5(1).

Gratacap-Cavallier B, et al. Cytomegalovirus seroprevalence in French pregnant women: parity and place of birth as major predictive factors. European Journal of Epidemiology. 1998;14(2):147-152.

Emery VC, Lazzarotto T. Cytomegalovirus in pregnancy and the neonate. F1000 Research. 2017. 6(138):1-9.

Atta Elmanan MSA. Seroprevalence of Cytomegalovirus among Pregnant Women in Kassala State. Sudan University of Science & Technology; 2018.

Kumar M, Nizam MB, Mugunthan M. Seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus infection in antenatal women in a Tertiary Care Center in Western India. Journal of Marine Medical Society. 2017;19(1):51.

Vazeh H, Farahmabd M, Shokouhifar A. The Difference in Levels of Cytomegalovirus Antibodies among Women in Gestation Age. Iranian Journal of Virology. 2018;12(1):25-31.

Zhou Q, et al., Seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus and associated factors among preconception women: A cross-sectional nationwide study in China. Frontiers in Public Health. 2021; 9(631411):1-9.

Faure-Bardon V, et al. Sequelae of congenital cytomegalovirus following maternal primary infections are limited to those acquired in the first trimester of pregnancy. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2019;69(9):1526-1532.

Aljumaily Z, Alsamarai A. Risk factors for bad obstetric history in Kirkuk women, Iraq. International Journal of Infection and Microbiology. 2013;2(3):70-77.

Saad F, et al., Detection of Cytomegalovirus in Pregnant Women of Lakki Marwat and Bannu, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Pak. J. Zool. 2021;53(1):363.

Badami KG, CMV. Transfusions, an old story that’s not quite over yet. International Journal of Clinical Transfusion Medicine. 2014;2:7-19.

Akinbami AA, et al. Seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus antibodies amongst normal pregnant women in Nigeria. International Journal of Women's Health. 2011;3:423.

Costa GB, et al. Infectious diseases during pregnancy in Brazil: seroprevalence and risk factors. The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries. 2018;12(08):657-665.

Hamid K, et al. Seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus among pregnant women attending Murtala Mohammed specialist hospital Kano, Nigeria. African Health Sciences. 2014;14(1):125-130.