Evaluation of Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activities of Charcoal Obtained from Almond Tree Stem

Oridupa I. S. *

Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria.

Adebayo T. E.

Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria.

Ezeugwu P. C.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria.

Amuna O. T.

Department of Biological Sciences, Federal University, Lokoja, Nigeria.

Aondoaver S. A.

Department of Chemistry, Benue State University, Makurdi, Nigeria.

Eseiwi F. O.

Department of Biological Sciences, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, Wayne State University, Detroit MI 48202, USA.

Ayoola P. B.

Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


The emergence of antimicrobial resistance has spurred the search for alternative antimicrobial agents for drug-resistant species. This study aimed to investigate the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of charcoal obtained from the almond (Terminalia catappa) tree stem, commonly known as fruit in Nigeria. The charcoal was extracted from Terminalia catappa using the earth pit kiln method of carbonization, and its chemical composition was analyzed using the cold extraction method followed by qualitative phytochemical analysis. Mineral analysis was conducted using the wet acid digestion method, followed by spectrophotometric analysis using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) and Flame Absorption Spectrophotometer (FAS). Additionally, the antimicrobial activities of the charcoal were evaluated against ten (10) clinical isolates using the MIC/TTC and mycelial inhibition concentration method. The results revealed the presence of tannins, alkaloids, steroids, and flavonoids. Mineral analysis showed that K had the highest concentration in the order of K >Na > Ca, while trace element analysis indicated that Fe had the highest concentration in the order of Fe > Cr > Zn >Cu >Mn >Pb. Charcoal demonstrated significant antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa at a concentration of 200 mg/ml with a minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) value of 50%, as well as against Aspergillus terreus with a growth inhibition value of 64% at a concentration of 100 mg/ml. These findings highlight the potential of Terminalia catappa stem charcoal as a natural antimicrobial agent and a promising source of raw materials for pharmaceutical applications.

Keywords: Chemical composition, antimicrobial agent, charcoal, drug resistance, spectrophotometry

How to Cite

Oridupa I. S., Adebayo T. E., Ezeugwu P. C., Amuna O. T., Aondoaver S. A., Eseiwi F. O., & Ayoola P. B. (2023). Evaluation of Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activities of Charcoal Obtained from Almond Tree Stem. Asian Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 8(2), 146–154. https://doi.org/10.56557/ajmab/2023/v8i28456


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