RESISTANCE PATTERN OF ANTIBIOTIC ON RE-EMERGING ESBL PRODUCING Escherichia coli AND Salmonella species ISOLATED FROM DIARRHOEA PATIENT IN TWO HOSPITALS IN ENUGU
Asian Journal of Current Research, Volume 7, Issue 2,
Antimicrobial resistance among Enterobacteriaceae is unavoidable in modern medicine, and it is a major concern in the treatment of bacterial infections both in the hospital and in the community. Extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) are enzymes produced by a range of Gram negative bacteria that provide greater antibiotic resistance. This article aims to determine the antimicrobial resistance pattern of re-emerging ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae isolated from diarrhea patients in Enugu. Its objective is to isolate ESBL producing bacteria, investigate the prevalence of ESBL producing bacteria in patients and determine antimicrobial sensitivity profile. Clinical stool samples were collected from diarrhea patients from two hospitals in Enugu and were isolated on Cysteine Lactose Electrolyte Deficient (CLED) and Salmonella Shigella agar, a total of 35 isolates were obtained from which only 9 isolates were identified as potential Esbl producing organisms after phenotypical method and double disk synergy.
How to Cite
Oghenevo O, Bassey B, Yhiler N, Francis U, Angela O. Antibiotic Resistance in Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases (Esbls) Salmonella Species Isolated from Patients with Diarrhoea in Calabar, Nigeria. J Clinlincal Infect Dis Pract. 2016;1:107.
Ekwealor PA, Ugwu MC, Ezeobi I. Antimicrobial Evaluation of Bacterial Isolates from Urine Specimen of Patients with Complaints of Urinary Tract Infections in Awka, Nigeria. Int J Microbiol. 2016;1-7.
Bradford PA."Extended-spectrumβ-lactumases in the 21st century: characterization, epidemiology, and detection of this important resistance threat. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 2001;48:933-51.
Akinyemi KO, Iwalokun BA, Foli F, Oshodi K, Coker AO. Prevalence of multiple drug resistance and screening of enterotoxin gene (stn) in Salmonella enterica serovars from water sources in Lagos, Nigeria. J Public Health. 2011;125: 65-71.
Ranjbar R, Giammanco GM, Aleo A, Plano MR, Naghoni A, Owlia P, Mammina C. Characterization of the first extended-spectrum β-lactamase–producing nontyphoidal Salmonella strains isolated in Tehran, Iran. Foodborne pathogens and disease. 2010; 7(1):91-5.
Riddle MS, DuPont HL, Connor BA. ACG Clinical Guideline: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention of Acute Diarrheal Infections in Adults. Am J Gastroenterol. 2016;126: 1- 21.
Paterson DL. Recommendation for treatment of severe infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs). J. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2000;6:460- 463.
World Health Organization. The treatment of diarrhoea: a manual for physicians and other senior health workers. 4th revision. Geneva: Dept. of Child and Adolescent Health and Development World Health Organization; 2005.
Friedmann R, Raveh D, Zartzer E, Rudensky B, Broide E, Attias D, Yinnon AM. Prospective Evaluation of Colonization with Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae among patients at hospital admission and of subsequent colonization with ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae among patients during hospitalization. Infect Contr. Hosp. J. Epidemiol. 2009;30:534–542.
Ugwu MC, Edeani GI, Ejikeugwu CP, Okezie U, Ejiofor SO. Antibiotic Susceptibility Profile of Escherichia coli and Salmonella Causing Childhood Diarrhoea in Awka Municipality, South-eastern Nigeria. 2017;6:277.
Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Performance standards for Antimicrobial disk susceptibility tests; twenty first Informational Supplement. CLSI document M100-S21, Wayne, Pa. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. 2020;31(1).
Cheesbrough M. District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries Part 2.(3edn). Cambridge University Press; 2006.
Aibinu IE, Ohaegbulam VC, Adenipekun EA, Ogunsola FT, Odugbemi TO, Mee BJ. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase enzymes in clinical isolates of Enterobacter species from Lagos, Nigeria. J. Clin. Microbiol. 2003;41(5):2197-2200.
Andrew JM, Ashiby JP. Study to assess the reliability of a dics diffusion method for determing the sensitivity of gram positive pathogens to dalforpristin/quinupristin. J. Antimicrob Chemother. 1999;43(1):141-143.
Bush K, Jacoby GA. Updated functional classification of beta-lactamases. J. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010;54(3):969–976.
Mayers DL. Antimicrobial Drug Resistance, Humana Press,a part of Springer Science+Business Media, LLC; 2009.
Jacoby GA, Luisa Silvia and Munoz-Price. "Mechanisms of disease: The New β-Lactumases". N Engl. J. Med. 2005;352 (4):380–391.
Kosek M, Bern C, Guerrant RL. The global burden of diarrhoeal disease, as estimated from studies published between 1992 and 2000. Bull World Health Organ. 2003;81:197-204.
Song W, Kim J, Bae IK, Jeong SH, Seo YH, Shin JH. Chromosome-Encoded Amp C and CTXM Extended-Spectrum ß-Lactamases in Clinical Isolates of Proteus Mirabilis from Korea. J. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 2011;55:1414-1419.
Eseigbe EE, Iriah S, Ibok S, Anyanwu F, Eseigbe P. Bacterial isolates from the stools of children aged less than 5 years with acute diarrhea in Kaduna, Northwestern Nigeria. J. Ann Trop Med Public Health. 2013;6:452-455.
Nweze EI. Virulence properties of diarrheagenic E.coli and etiology of Diarrhoea in infants, young children and other age groups in Southeast Nigeria. Am-Euras J Sci Res. 2009;4:173-179.
Luzzaro F, Mezzatesta M, Mugnaioli C. Perilli, M. Stefani S, Amicosante G. Trends in Production of Extended-spectrum ß-Lactamases among Enterobacteriaceae of Medical Interest:Report of the Second Italian Nationwide Survey. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 2006;44:1659-1664.
Oluyege JO, Dada O, Oluyege AO, Olowomoofe TO. Multiple antibiotic resistance indexes of Escherichia coli isolated from drinking water source in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. The J. Experiment Biology. 2014;28:1896-1905.
Langendorf C, Le Hello S, Moumouni A, Gouali M and Mamaty AA. Enteric Bacterial Pathogens in Children with Diarrhea in Niger: Diversity and Antimicrobial Resistance. 2015;10:1-18.
Okeke IN, Klugman KP, Bhutta ZA, Duse AG, Jenkins P, O’Brien TF, Pablos-Mendez A, Laxminarayan R. Antimicrobial resistance in developing countries. Part II: strategies for containment. J. Lancet Infect Dis. 2005; 5:568–580.
Andriatahina T, Randrianirina F, Ratsima-Hariniana E, Talarmin A, Raobijaona H, Buisson Y, Richard V. High prevalence of fecal carriage of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in a pediatric unit in Madagascar. BMC, J. Infectious disease. 2010;10:204.
Pitout JD, Laupland KB. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase- producing Enterobacteriaceae: an emerging public-health concern. J. Lancet Infect. Dis. 2008;8:159-166.
Mathew AW, Franklin RC, William AC, Michael ND, George ME. Performance Standard for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute. 2007;27:1-82.
Johann DD, Pitout Kevin B, Laupland. Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase- Producing Enterobacteriaceae: An emerging public-health concern. J. Lancet Infect.Dis. 2008;8:159-66.
Messai Y, Benhassine T, Naim M, Paul G, Bakour R. Prevalence of β-lactams resistance among Escherichia coli clinical isolates from a hospital Algiers. Rev. Esp. Quimioterap. 2006;19(2):144-151
National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System. National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) System Report, data summary from January 1992 through June 2004, issued October 2004. Am J Infect Control. 2004;32:470-485.
Paterson DL, Bonomo RA. Extended-spectrum β-lactamases: a clinical Update. J. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2005;18: 657- 686.
Franiczek R, Sobieszczańska B, Turniak M, Kasprzykowska U, Krzyzanowska B. ESBL-Producing Escherichia coli Isolated from Children with Acute Diarrhea–Antimicrobial Susceptibility, Adherence Patterns and Phylogenetic Background. Adv. J.Clin Exp Med. 2012;21:187-192.
Epoke EI, Igumbor C and Tichawowona. Locally prepared antibiotic sensitivity discs: A substitute for imported commercial discs. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Science. 2003;9:453-456.
Siddheshwar SS, Pattan SR, Wabale NB, Pattan JS, Dighe SB, Bhavar SB, Gude RS. Need and Scope of Development of β–Lactums. Int. J. Pharm. Natural. Med. 2013;1(1):52-62.
Abstract View: 199 times
PDF Download: 8 times