Published: 2022-04-15

Page: 247-261


Crop Physiology Research Department, Field Crops Research Institute, ARC, 12619, Egypt.


Wheat Research Department, Field Crops Research Institute, ARC, 12619, Egypt.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Water deficiency in plant impairs the numerous physiological and metabolic functions. Selection of wheat genotypes that can tolerate water deficiency would be helpful tools for breeding program aiming to develop drought tolerant variety under water limited regions. Four wheat genotypes i.e (Misr 1, shandweel1, line 1 and line 2) were grown under four water regimes i.e 2400m3/fad (Wet), 2100m3/fad (Moist), 1800m3/fad (Medium) and 1500m3/fad (Dry) in wiry greenhouse at Giza Agricultural Research Station, (30.0204508, 31.2067921) ARC, during the two winter growing seasons of 2018/2019 and 2019/2020 to evaluate two promising line compared to two commercial wheat cultivar under water deficit. Important physiological traits of specific leaf area (SLA), crop growth rate (CGR), relative water content (RWC), stomatal resistance (SR), transpiration rate (TR), Photosynthetic pigments, Proline, total phenolic and glycine betaine, and lipid peroxidation (MDA) were studied. Results showed highly significant difference among wheat genotypes in all studied traits. The superior line1 indicated higher growth parameters, SLA, CGR, RWC, SR, Photosynthetic pigments, Proline, total phenolic and glycine betaine and showed decline in MDA and TR under1500m3/fad (Dry). These traits are recognized as beneficial drought tolerance indicators for selecting tolerant genotypes. Similarly, grain yield t/ha, straw yield t/ha, total soluble protein in grain, water productivity and harvest index of the same wheat genotype were also higher. I could be used as a good source for drought tolerant criteria in wheat breeding program.

Keywords: Wheat, water deficit, physiological traits, RWC, grain yield

How to Cite

M. HASHEM, O. S., & IBRAHIM GAD, K. (2022). PHYSIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SOME WHEAT GENOTYPES UNDER WATER DEFICIT CONDITIONS. Asian Journal of Plant and Soil Sciences, 7(1), 247–261. Retrieved from


Download data is not yet available.


FAO STAT. FAO Statistics Division; 2021.

Ali A, Aslam Z, Javed T, Hussain S, Raza A, Shabbir R, Mora-Poblete F, Saeed T, Zulfiqar F, Moaaz M. Ali, Nawaz M, Rafiq M, Osman HS, Albaqami M, Ahmed MAA, Tauseef M. Screening of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Genotypes for Drought Tolerance through Agronomic and Physiological Response. Agronomy J. 2022;12:287.1-17.

Shao HB, Chu LY, Jaleel CA, Zhao CX. Water deficit stress induced anatomical changes in higher plants. C.R. Biol. 2008;331:215-225.

Nayyar H, Gupta D. Differential sensitivity of C3 and C4 plants to water deficit stress. Association with oxidative stress and antioxidants. Environ. Exp. Bot. 2006;58:106-113.

Almeselmani M, Saud AA, Al-zubi K, Hareri F, Al-nassan M, Ammar MA, Kanbar OZ, Al-Naseef H, Al-nator A, Al-gazawy A, Al-sael HA. Physiological attributes associated to water deficit tolerance of Syrian durum wheat varieties. Exp. Agri. Hort. 2012;12:21-41.

Sangtarash MH. Responses of different wheat genotypes to drought stress applied at different growth stages. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences. 2010;13:114-119.

Md Abu Hassan, Rafiqui I, Bahadur M, Hakim A. Evaluation of drought tolerance of some wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes through phenology, growth, and physiological indices. Agronomy J. 2021;11:1972, 1-20.

Schneiter AA. Non- destructive leaf area estimation in sunflower. J. of Agronomy. 1978;70:141-142.

Hunt R. Basic Growth Analysis. Published by the Academic Division of Univ. Hyman Ltd., London. 1990;25-72.

Schonfeld MA, Johnson RC; Carver F, Mornhinweg DW. Water relations in winter wheat as drought resistance indicators. Crop Science. 1988;28:526-531.

Molden D, Murray-Rust H, Sakthivadivel R, Makin I. A water productivity framework for understanding and action. Workshop on water productivity. Wadduwa, Srilanka; 2001.

Jat K, Muralia R, Kumar A. J. Agron. Crop sci. 2008;167.

Metzner H, Rau H, Senger H. Ulter such ungen zur synchroni sier bar kietein zelner pigment mangel-Mutanten von chlorella. Planta. 1965;65:186-194.

Bates LS, Waldern RP, Teave ID. Rapid determination of free proline for water stress studied. Plant and Soil. 1973;39:205-207.

Heath RI, Packer L. Photoperoxidation in isolated chloroplasts. I. Kinetics and stoichiometry of fatty acid peroxidation. Arch. Biophys. 1968;125:189-198.

Grieve CM, Grattan SR. Rapid assay for determination of water soluble quaternary ammonium compounds. Plant and Soil. 1983;70:303-307.

Kaur C, Kapoor HC. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of some Asian vegetables. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 2002;37:53-161.

Bradford MM. A rapid and sensitive method for quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilization the principle of protein-dye binding. Annals of Biochem. 1976;72:248-254.

Snedecor GW, Cochran WG. Statistical Methods, 12thed. Iowa State Univ. Press, Amer. Iowa, USA; 1980.

Chaves MM, Flexas J, Pinheiro C. Photosynthesis under drought and salt stress: regulation mechanisms from whole plant to cell. Ann. Bot. 2009;103:551-560.

Inamullah ZA, Swati A, Latif A, Siraj D. Evaluation of lines for drought tolerance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Scientific Khyber. 1999;12(2):39-48.

Chorfi A, Taıbi K. Biochemical screening for osmotic adjustment of wheat genotypes under drought stress. Tropicult. 2011;29:82–87.

Baque MA. Potassium induced changes in the physiology of wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L.) under water stress conditions. M.Sc.(Ag.) thesis, Dept Agron., Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agril. Univ., Gazipur. 2003.

Razzaq A, Ali Q, Qayyum A, Mahmood I, Ahmad M, Rasheed M. Physiological responses and drought resistance index of nine wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars under different moisture conditions. Pak. J. Bot. 2013;45:151–155.

Mujtaba SM, Summiya F, Muhammad AK, Shirazi MU, Khan MA. Evaluation of Drought Tolerant Wheat Genotypes Using Morpho-Phsiological Indices as Screening Tools. Pak. J. Bot. 2018;50(1):51-58.

Rong-hua L, Peiguo G, Baum M, Grando S, Ceccarelli S. Evaluation of chlorophyll content and fluorescence parameters as indicators of drought tolerance in barley. Agri. Sci. Chin. 2006;5:751-757.

Verma V, Foullces MJ, Worland AJ, Sylcester-Bradley R, Caligari PDS, Snape JW. Mapping quantitative trait loci for flag leaf senescence as a yield determinant in winter wheat under optimal and drought stressed environments. Euphytica. 2004;135:255-263.

Naroui Rad MR, Kadir AK, Jaafar HZE, Gement DC. Physiological and biochemical relationship under drought stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum). Afric. J. Biotech. 2012;11:1574-1578.

Ali A, Zubair A, Talha J, Sadam H, Ali R, Rubab S, et al. Screening of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Genotypes for Drought Tolerance through Agronomic and Physiological Response Agronomy. 2022;12:287.


Naeem MK, Kamran M, Munir A, Kausar M. Physiological responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) against drought stress. International Journal of Plant & Soil Science. IJPSS. 2015;6(1):1-9.

Mujtaba SAI, Summiya F, Muhammad AK, Shirazi MU. Evaluation of drought tolerant wheat genotypes using morpho-physiological indices as screening tools. Pak. J. Bot. 2018;50(1):51-58.

Araus JL, Ali Dib T, Nachit M. Some insights about morphophysiological traits associated with yield increases in Mediterranean environments. In Durum Research Network. Proceedings of the SEWANA Durum Network workshop, Nachit, M., Baum, M., Porceddu, P., Monneveux, P. and Picard. 1998;20-23.

Farshadfar E, Ghasemi M, Rafii F. Evaluation of physiological parameters as a screening technique for drought tolerance in bread wheat. J. Biodiv. Envir. Sci. 2014;4:175-186.

Paknejad F, Nasri M, Moghadam HRT, Zahedi H, Alahrnadi MJ. Effects of drought stress on chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, chlorophyll content and grain yield of wheat cultivars. J. Biol. Sci. 2007;7:841-847.

Nayyar H, Walia DP. Water stress induced proline accumulation in contrasting wheat genotypes as affected by calcium and abscisic acid. Bio. Plant. 2003;46:275-279.

Andarab SS. Study of correlation among yield and yield components affecting traits on bread wheat under drought stress and non-stress conditions. Annals Biol. Res. 2013;4:286-289.

Maralian H, Ebadi A, Didar TR, HajiEghrari B. Influence of water deficit stress on wheat grain yield and proline accumulation rate. Afri. J. Agri. Res. 2010;5:286-28.

Keyran S. The effects of drought stress on yield, relative water content, proline, soluble carbohydrates and chlorophyll of bread wheat cultivars. J. Anim. Plant Sci. 2010;8:1051–1060.

Malik MA, Hassan F. Response of wheat genotypes on suppression of weeds under rainfed conditions. Pak. J. Agri., Agril. Engg. Vet. Sci. 2002;18(1-2):18-22.

Chandler SS, Singh TK. Selection criteria for drought tolerance in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Series: Coping with wheat in a changing environment a biotic stresses. The 11th International Wheat Genetics Symposium proceeding Edited by Rudi Apples'; Russell Eastwood ;Evans Lagudah; Peter Langridge; Michael Mackay; Lynne Sydney. University Press. 2008;1-3.

Mirbahar AA, Markhand GS, Mahar AR, Abro SA, Kanhar NA. Effect of water stress on yield and yield components of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties. Pak. J. Bot. 2009;41(3): 1303-1310.

Kilic H, Yagbasanlar T. The effect of drought stress on grain yield, yield components and some quality traits of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum) cultivars. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca. 2010;38:164– 170.

Abbate PE, Dardanelli JL, Cantarero MG, Maturano M, Melchiori RJM, Suero EE. Climate and water availability effect on water user efficiency in wheat. Crop Sci. 2004;44: 474-483.

Ahmed HGMD, Zeng Y, Yang X, Anwaar HA, Mansha MZ, Hanif CMS, Ikram K, Ullah A, Alghanem SMS. Conferring drought-tolerant wheat genotypes through morpho-physiological and chlorophyll indices at seedling stage. Saudi J. Biol. Sci. 2020;27:2116–2123.

Abdullah F, Hareri F, Naaesan M, Ammar MA, Kanbar OZ. Effect of drought on different physiological characters and yield component in different varieties of Syrian durum wheat. Journal of Agriculture Science. 2011;3(3):127-133.

Zhang X, Chen S, Sun H, Wang Y, Shao L. Water use efficiency and associated traits in winter wheat cultivars in the north China plain. Agricultural Water Management; 2009.