Full Article - PDF

Published: 2019-11-13

Page: 10-19


Department of Microbiology, Kogi State University, Anyigba, Kogi State, Nigeria.


Department of Microbiology, Kogi State University, Anyigba, Kogi State, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Microbial and biochemical changes in the fermentation of African Locust Beans (Prosopis africana) seeds for “Okpehe” production were studied. Three methods of cooking before fermentation of the seeds were adopted namely: use of firewoods (Sample A) boiled with auto-clave (Sample B); boiled using a hot plate (Sample C). Sample A had seven isolates (Bacillus subtilis, B. licheniforrus, B. megaterium, B. pumilus, Escherinchia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Samples B and C had no Saccharomyces cerevisiae. B. megaterium disappeared in Samples A and C after 24 hours fermentation but persisted till the end of fermentation in Sample B. E. coli also disappeared after 24 hours in Sample A and B. The highest microbial count 2.8 x 106 was observed at 72 hours in Sample A. B. subtilis had the highest count in the three samples at 72hr. There was more microbial load in sample A followed by sample C and B. During fermentation there was an increase in pH for the three samples. Sample C had highest pH of 7.7 at 72 hours of the three samples, while the least pH of 6.8 was observed with sample A. Temperature also increased as fermentation progressed in all with the highest value of 32ºC observed in sample B at 72 hours. Moisture increased with an increase in the fermentation period. The highest moisture of 9.46% was seen in sample C and sample A, 6.97% was the least observed moisture level at 0 hours. Crude protein increased from 0 hours to 72 hours with a value of 30.90% to 40.05%. Crude fibre also increased during fermentation with sample B having the highest value of 3.63. However, as fermentation progressed ether extract decreased from 11.49 to 8.15 Ash content reduced with fermentation, 4.89% to 4.80%. There was a significant difference in the quality of the sample of Okpehe using various means of boiling the African locust bean seeds. Hence the method of boiling can be used to improve the ‘Okpehe’ quality.

Keywords: Biochemical changes, fermentation, microbial load, Prosopis africana.

How to Cite

MAJI, S. A., & ADEGOKE, S. A. (2019). BACTERIAL AND BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES IN THE FERMENTATION OF AFRICAN LOCUST BEANS (Prosopis africana) SEED FOR OKPEHE PRODUCTION. Asian Journal of Research in Biology, 2(1), 10–19. Retrieved from


Download data is not yet available.


Anon; 2009.

Available:www.wikipedia.Akee.utml. 10/09/08

Aremu M0, Olonisakin A, Atolayc B0, Oghu CF. Some nutritional and functional studies of Prosopis africana. Electronic Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Food Chemistry. 2006;5(6):1640-1648.

Fetuga BL, Babatunde GM, Oyenuga VA. Protein quality of some Nigerian foodstuffs 1: Chemical assay of nutrients and amino acid composition. Journal of Science, Food and Agriculture. 1973;24:523-525.

Oguntoyinbo FA, Huch Melanie, Cho Gyu-Sung, Schillinger Ulrich Holzapfel, Wihelm H, Sanni AI, Franz Charles MAP. Diversity of Bacillus species isolated from Okpehe, a traditional fermented soup condiment from Nigeria. Journal of Food Protection. 2010;73(5):870-878.

Karim OR, Adekunle OA. Food and nutrition security: A conflict prevention strategy in Nigeria. In Dynamics of the peace process by 1.0. Albert and 1.0 Oleyede. Eds, Center for peace and strategies studies: Ilorin. 2010;513-522.

Olasupo NA, Okorie PC. African fermented food condiments: Microbiology impacts on their nutritional values. In Frontiers and New Trends in the Science of Fermented Food and Beverages. IntechOpen; 2019.

AOAC. Official Methods of Analysis, 16th Edition. Association of Official Analytical Chemists: Washington D.C.; 2002.

Oyeyiola GP. Fermentation of the seeds of Prosopis africana to produce a condiment. NISEB Journal. 2002;2(2):127-129.

Achi OK. Microorganisms associated with. Fermentation of Prosopis africana seeds for production of okpehe. Journal of Plant Foods and Human Nutrition. 1992;42:279-304.

Ogunshe AAO, Omotosho MO, Ayanshina ADV. Microbial studies and biochemical characteristics of controlled fermented afiyo- a Nigerian fermented food condiment from Prosopis africana (Guill and Perr.) Taub. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 2007;6(6):620-627.

Antai SP, Ibrahim MH. Microorganisms associated with African locust bean (Parkia filicuidea Weiw) fermentation for dawadawa production. Journal of Applied Bacteriology. 1986;61:145-148.

Ouoba LII, Thorsen L, Varnam AH. Exterotoxins and emetic toxins production by Baccilus cerus and other species of Baccilus isolated from Soumbala and Bikalga. African alkaline fermented food condiments. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 2008;124:224-230.

Ouoba LII, Thorsen L, Varnam AH. Enterotoxins and emetic toxins production by Bacillus cereus and other species of Bacillus isolated from soumbala and bikalga. African alkaline fermented food condiments. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 2008;124:224-230.

Odunfa SA. A role on the microorganisms associated with the fermentation of African locust bean (Parkia filicoidea) during iru production. Journal of Plant Foods 3: 245-250.

Odunfa, S.A. (1985). Biochemical changes in fermenting African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa) during iru fermentation. Journal of Food Technology. 1981;20:295-303.

Odunfa SA, Oyeyiola GP. Microbiological study of the fermentation of ugba - a Nigerian indigenous fermented food flavour. Journal of Plant Foods. 1985;6:155-163.

Whitaker CR. Biochemical changes occurring during the fermentation of high protein foods. Food Technology. 1978;32:175.

Gernah DI, Inyang CU, Ezeora NI. Effect of incubation materials on fermentation of African locust beans (Parkia biglobosa) in the production of dawadawa. Nigerian Food Journal. 2005;23:166-173.

Campbell-Plant G. African locust bean (Parkia species) and it's West African fermented food products, dawadawa. Ecology, Food and Nutrition. 1980;9:123-132