HEALTH RISK OF SELECTED INORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN SOME FOOD SPICES SOLD IN MARKETS WITHIN PORT HARCOURT METROPOLIS, NIGERIA

Main Article Content

BEAUTY NMAZULE NNARI
ELECHI OWHOEKE
UGOCHUKWU ANTHONY NAZE

Abstract

The study investigated the concentrations of some inorganic contaminants such as copper(Cu), cadmium(Cd), chromium(Cr), nickel(Ni) and lead (Pb) present in some food spices widely used in Port Harcourt and the health risk. This was carried out using atomic absorption spectroscopy, after wet digestion. The studies showed differences in metal concentrations in different spices samples. The mean concentration and standard deviation of heavy metals in the food spices across the samples showed that copper had the highest concentration in tomatoes(15.45±5.09 mg/kg), curry(10.30±2.03 mg/kg), garlic(8.65±2.08 mg/kg), onions(6.50±2.52 mg/kg) and uda(6.15±3.75 mg/kg) respectively. Chromium was only detected in curry (2.75±1.00 mg/kg), pepper (0.65±0.02mg/kg) and salt (0.05±0.00 mg/kg). The detection level of nickel was high in tomatoes (6.90±4.89 mg/kg), curry (4.09±1.90 mg/kg), salt (6.15±3.70 mg/kg) and onions (3.09±2.10 mg/kg). The following food spices had more of lead; uda(3.08±2.87 mg/kg), tomatoes(3.80±1.28 mg/kg), curry(2.86±1.34 mg/kg) and salt(2.60±0.76 mg/kg) respectively. The result indicates that cadmium was not detected for any of the food spices and chilles spices also showed no presence of any of the heavy metals tested for. The Metal Pollution Index (PI) were all less than unity (<1). Daily intake limit was calculated and compared with MRL (minimum risk level) values given by ATSDR (2001). Results showed that concentrations of Pb of some spices under study were much larger than those of MRL values. Thus intake of these spices can cause accumulation in the body.

Keywords:
Spices, inorganic contaminants, risk, Port Harcourt, accumulation.

Article Details

How to Cite
NNARI, B. N., OWHOEKE, E., & NAZE, U. A. (2020). HEALTH RISK OF SELECTED INORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN SOME FOOD SPICES SOLD IN MARKETS WITHIN PORT HARCOURT METROPOLIS, NIGERIA. Asian Journal of Research in Biology, 3(1), 15-21. Retrieved from https://ikprress.org/index.php/AJRiB/article/view/5159
Section
Original Research Article

References

Umar MA, Salihu ZOO. Heavy metals content of some spices available within FCT-Abuja, Nigeria. International Journal of Agricultural and Food Science. 2014;4: 66-74.

Gupta KK, Bhattacharjee S, Kar S, Chakrabarty S, Thakur P, Bhattacharyya G, Srivastava SC. Mineral compositions of eight common Sspices. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis. 2003;34:681- 693.

Thomas F, Daoust SP, Raymond M. Can we understand modern humans without considering pathogens? Evolutionary Applications. 2012;5:368–379.

Mubeen H, Naeem I, Taskeen A, Saddiqe Z. Investigations of heavy metals in commercial spices brands. New York Science Journal. 2009;2:20-26.

Ozcan M. Mineral contents of some plants used as condiments in Turkey. Food Chemistry, 2004;84:437-445.

Nkansah AM, Amoako OC. Heavy metal content of some common spices available in markets in the Kumasi metropolis of Ghana. American Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research. 2010;1:158-163.

Hina B, Rizwani H, Shareef H, Ahmed M. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopic Analysis of some Pakistani Herbal medicinal products used in respiratory tract infections. Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2012;25:247- 253.

World Bank. Nigeria-Data and statistics; 2009. Available:http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES
AFRICAEXT/NIGERIAEXTN/0,,menuPK:38922~pagePK:141132~piPK:
141109~theSitePK:368896,00.html, on 4th June, 2018.

Satter A, Wahid M, Durrani SK. Concentration of selected heavy metals in spices, dry fruits and plants nuts. Plant Food Human Nutrition. 1989;39;279-286.

Abdullahi MS, Uzairu A, Okunola OJ. Determination of some trace metal levels in onion leaves from irrigated farmlands on the bank of River Challawa, Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2008;7:1526-1529.

Ekpo AJ, Jimmy EO. Nutritional effect of spices from roasted Chicken and Beef Meat consumption. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 2005;4:428-43.

Ozturk E, Atsan E, Polat T, Kara K. Variation in heavy metal concentrations of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars. Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences. 2011;21:235- 239.

Vallee BL, Auld DS. Zinc coordination, function,and structure of zinc enzymes and other proteins. Biochemistry. 1990;29:5647-59.

Wardlaw GM. Contemporary Nutrition, Issues and Insight. 5th edition. New York: The McGraw Hill Companies. 2013;317-325.

Alinnor JI. Estimation of trace elements in leaves of Talium triangulare (water leaf) and Varnonina amygdalina (bitter leaf) from major highways leading to Owerri. Nigerian Journal of Applied Sciences. 2004;93:27–32.

Iyaka YA. Concentration of Cu and Zn in some fruits and vegetables commonly available in North Central Zone of Nigeria. Electron. Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Food Chemistry. 2007;6:2150-2154.

Jamali MK, Kazi TG, Arian MB. Determination of Pollution Indices. Environmental Pollution Handbook, China. 2007;209-218.

Chukwuma SC. Evaluating Baseline Data for Lead (Pb) and Cadmium (Cd) in Rice, Yam, Cassava, and Guinea Grass from Cultivated Soils in Nigeria. Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry, 1994;45:45-56.

Oti WJO. Pollution indices and bioaccumulation factors of heavy metals in selected fruits and vegetables from a Derelict mine and their associated health implications. International Journal of Environmental Sciences and Toxicological Research. 2015;3: 9-15.

Singh A, Sharma RK, Agrawal M, Marshall FM. Risk assessment of heavy metal toxicity through contaminated vegetables from waste water irrigated area of Varanasi. India. Tropical Ecology. 2010;51:375–387.

Ozkutlu F, Sekeroglu N, Kara SM. Heavy metals in spices and food seasonings. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences. 2006;2:223-226.

Ozkutlu F, Kara SM, Şekeroğlu N. Heavy metals, micronutrients, mineral content, toxicity, trace elements. International Symposium on Medicinal and Nutraceutical Plants. 1997;756.

Özçelik D, Toplan S, Özdemir S, Akyolcu MC. Effects of excessive copper intake on hematological and hemorheological parameters. Biomedical and Life Sciences. 2002;89:35-42.

Abou-Arab AAK, Abou-Donia MA. Heavy metals in Egyptian spices and medicinal plants and the effect of processing on their levels. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry. 2000;48:2300-2304.

McNamara L. Lead in Our Food? Now that's a Heavy Meal; 2008.

Available:http://mcnamaraupdates.blogspot.com/2008/06/leadin-our-food-nowthatsheavymeal.html

Gupta CU, Gupta CS. Trace elements toxicity relationships to crop production and livestock and human health: Implication for management. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 1998;29:1491–1522.