Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


The intake of heavy metals through fruit consumption is a food safety problem that severely impacts the health of consumers; so information about food intake and heavy metal concentrations in food products is required to estimate the potential risk it poses to the health of the population. The aim of this study is to estimate the potential risks caused by heavy metals to human health from exposure to Cd, As, Pb and Hg through the intake of yellow and red apple considering the age group and gender. The concentration of each of the metals was quantified by spectrometry of atomic absorption (AAS) and the health risk indices such as health risk index (HRI), the hazard quotient (THQ) and the probability of carcinogenic risk (CR) through the consumption of apple were estimated. The concentrations of the metals analyzed in the apple samples shows the following decreasing order: Cd > Pb > As and Hg. The health risk assessments obtained from the samples of apples are located within the acceptable and tolerable limits; however, the increase in the intake of heavy metals through consumption of apples purchased from the study area may increase the health risk potential of consumers. For this reason, it is recommended to carry out studies on the concentration of heavy metals in various fruits products, mainly those of high demand, to guarantee food security of the population.

Keywords: Heavy metals, apples, hazard quotient, carcinogenic

How to Cite

PRINCEWILL, O. A. (2022). RISK ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATION IN APPLES SOLD WITHIN AWKA METROPOLIS IN ANAMBRA STATE NIGERIA. Journal of Applied Chemical Science International, 13(2), 46–51. https://doi.org/10.56557/jacsi/2022/v13i27516


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