Published: 2022-10-06

DOI: 10.56557/jacsi/2022/v13i47880

Page: 91-103


Institute of Natural Resources, Environment and Sustainable Development, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, Rivers State, Nigeria.


Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, Rivers State, Nigeria and World Bank Africa Centre of Excellence for Oil Field Chemicals Research, Nigeria.


Institute of Natural Resources, Environment and Sustainable Development, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, Rivers State, Nigeria and Department of Animal and Environmental Biology, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, Rivers State, Nigeria.


Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, Rivers State, Nigeria and World Bank Africa Centre of Excellence for Oil Field Chemicals Research, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Freshwater quality is deteriorating as a result of ongoing threats from both anthropogenic and natural sources, resulting in an overall loss of ecological integrity petroleum hydrocarbon profiles and heavy metals (Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Cr, and Zn) were determined in water samples collected at six sampling sites in Ede Onyima lake, Okarki-Engenni, Rivers State, Nigeria using gas chromatography, flame ionization detector, and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy.  Results showed that total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) varied from (0.27 -252.20 mg/L) with mean : 77.30 mg/L; Total hydrocarbon content (0.43 - 347.70 mg/L) with mean : 97.97 mg/L; Benzene, Toluene, and Xylene (9.00E-04- 6.60 mg/L) with mean : 0.11mg/L; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (0.16- 3.51mg/L) with mean : 1.93mg/L. The heavy metal results showed Mg (1.11- 8.67mg/L) with mean : 2.87 mg/L; Fe (0.13 - 20.73mg/L) with mean : 7.29mg/L; Mn (0.001- 5.92 mg/L) with mean : 1.69 mg/L; Pb (0.06 - 0.06 mg/L) with mean : 0.06 mg/kg;  Cu (6.33E-04- 0.31 mg/L) with mean : 0.07mg/L;  Zn (9.90E-04- 0.38 mg/L) with mean : 0.08 mg/L;  Ni (0.04 - 0.04 mg/L) with mean : 0.04 mg/L; Cd and Cr were less than  0.01 mg/L. The CWQI was used to capture the overall spatial and temporal trends in water quality in the Ede Onyima lake. The results showed that while PAHs and Fe exceeded guideline values and failed 100% of the time. The large magnitude of F3 is as a result of varying degrees of failure of Mn, Fe, THC, TPH, and PAHs, all of which exceeded regulatory thresholds by several magnitudes. Furthermore, the flood event had a significant effect on the quality of the water, remobilizing pollutants' availability while washing away legacy contaminated streambed deposits during baseflow.

Keywords: Total hydrocarbon content, physicochemical properties, Okarki-Engenni, Ageneiosus ucayalensis, atomic absorption spectroscopy

How to Cite

ESSIENE, M. S., OSUJI, L. C., HART, A. I., & ONOJAKE, M. C. (2022). HYDROCARBON PROFILE AND HEAVY METAL LEVELS OF EDE-ONYIMA LAKE IN OKARKI-ENGENNI, RIVERS STATE, NIGERIA. Journal of Applied Chemical Science International, 13(4), 91–103. https://doi.org/10.56557/jacsi/2022/v13i47880


Download data is not yet available.


Zhou R, Qin X, Peng S, Deng S. Total petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals in the surface sediments of Bohai Bay, China: Long-term variations in pollution status and adverse biological risk. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 2014;83(1):290–297.

Wang C, Zou X, Gao J, Zhao Y, Yu W, Li Y, Song Q. Pollution status of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments from the Yangtze River Estuary and its adjacent coastal zone. Chemosphere. 2016;162, 80–90.

Miranda LS, Moreira CT, Oliveira OM, Santos CP, Pinheiro SM, Oliveira LM, Martins AB, Filho MS. Oil-suspended particulate material aggregates as a tool in preventing potential ecotoxicological impacts in the São Paulo river, Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil: Influence of salinity and suspended particulate material. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 2016;112(1–2):91–97.

Romero IC, Schwing PT, Brooks GR, Larson RA, Hastings DW, Ellis G, et al. Hydrocarbons in deep-sea sediments following the 2010 deepwater horizon blowout in the Northeast Gulf of Mexico. PLoS ONE. 2015;10(5): e0128371.
Accessed August 24, 2020.

Nageswar Rao M, Ram A, Rokade MA, Raja P, Rakesh PS, Chemburkar P, Gajbhiye SN. A preliminary estimate of total petroleum hydrocarbons in water and some commercially important fish species in the Amba Estuary, West Coast of India. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 2016; 97(1):56–62.


Batvari BPD, Sivakumar S, Shanthi K, Lee KJ, Oh BT, Krishnamoorthy R, Kamala-Kannan S. Heavy metals accumulation in crab and shrimps from Pulicat lake, north Chennai coastal region, southeast coast of India. Toxicology and Industrial Health. 2013; 32(1):1–6.

Adeniji AO, Okoh OO, Okoh AI. Petroleum hydrocarbon fingerprints of water and sediment samples of Buffalo River Estuary in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry. 2017; 1–13.

Ihunwo OC, Onyema MO, Wekpe VO, Okocha C, Shahabinia AR, Emmanuel L, Okwe VN, Lawson CB, Mmom PC, Dibofori- Orji AN, Bonnail E. Ecological and human health risk assessment of total petroleum hydrocarbons in surface water and sediment from Woji Creek in the Niger Delta Estuary of Rivers State, Nigeria. Heliyon. 2021; 7(8):e07689.

USEPA. What are Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH)? | Urban Environmental Program in New England | USEPA; 2017.

Linde plc. Total Hydrocarbon Content (THC); 2021.

Baldwin AK, Corsi SR, Oliver SK, Lenaker PL, Nott MA, Mills MA, Norris GA, Paatero P. Primary sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to streambed sediment in great lakes tributaries using multiple lines of evidence. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 2020;39(7):1392–1408.

Yunker MB, Snowdon LR, Macdonald RW, Smith JN, Fowler MG, Skibo DN, McLaughlin FA, Danyushevskaya AI, Petrova VI, Ivanov GI. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon composition and potential sources for sediment samples from the Beaufort and Barents Seas. Environmental Science & Technology. 1996; 30(4):1310–1320.

Lasota J, ŁYszczarz S, Kempf P, Kempf M, Błońska E. Effect of species composition on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) accumulation in urban forest soils of Krakow. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution. 2021;232(2).

Soloperto S, Altin D, Hallmann A, Skottene E, Hansen BH, Jenssen BM, Ciesielski TM. Oil-mediated oxidative-stress responses in a keystone zooplanktonic species, Calanus finmarchicus. Science of the Total Environment. 2022;806:151365.

Pongpiachan S, Surapipith V, Hashmi MZ, Aukkaravittayapun S, Poshyachinda S. An application of aromatic compounds as alternative tracers of tsunami backwash deposits. Heliyon. 2021;7(4):e06883.

Rosińska A, Dąbrowska L. Selection of Coagulants for the Removal of Chosen PAH from Drinking Water. Water. 2018;10(7):886.


Crow CL, Opsahl SP, Pedraza DE, Pease EC, Kushnereit RK. Land-cover changes associated with oil and natural-gas production and concentrations of selected constituents in surface-water and streambed-sediment samples collected upstream from and within an area of oil and natural-gas production, south Texas, 2008–17: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2018–5119. 2018;52.

Wagner, Chad, Fitzgerald, Sharon, Antolino, Dominick. Characterization of water-quality and bed-sediment conditions in Currituck Sound, North Carolina, prior to the Mid-Currituck Bridge construction, 2011–15 (ver. 1.1, July 2016): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2015–1208. 2016;84.

Li C, Wang H, Liao X, Xiao R, Liu K, Bai J, Li B, He Q. Heavy metal pollution in coastal wetlands: A systematic review of studies globally over the past three decades. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2022; 424:127312.


Bhateria R, Jain D. Water quality assessment of lake water: a review. Sustainable Water Resources Management. 2016;2(2):161–173.

Lowe EC, Steven R, Morris RL, Parris KM, Aguiar AC, Webb CE, Bugnot AB, Dafforn KA, Connolly RM, Mayer Pinto M. Supporting urban ecosystem services across terrestrial, marine and freshwater realms. Science of the Total Environment. 2022;817:152689.

Crane JL, Bijak AL, Maier MA, Nord MA. Development of current ambient background threshold values for sediment quality parameters in U.S. lakes on a regional and statewide basis. Science of The Total Environment. 2021;793:148-630.

Zhang H, Cheng S, Li H, Fu K, Xu Y. Groundwater pollution source identification and apportionment using PMF and PCA-APCA-MLR receptor models in a typical mixed land-use area in Southwestern China. Science of The Total Environment. 2020;741:140383.

Chen D, Zhao Q, Jiang P, Li M. Incorporating ecosystem services to assess progress towards sustainable development goals: A case study of the Yangtze River Economic Belt, China. Science of The Total Environment. 2022;806:151277.

Sjöberg Y, Dessirier B, Ghajarnia N, Jaramillo F, Jarsjö J, Panahi DM, Xu D, Zou L, Manzoni S. Scaling relations reveal global and regional differences in morphometry of reservoirs and natural lakes. Science of the Total Environment. 2022;822:153510.

de Luca Peña LV, Taelman SE, Préat N, Boone L, van der Biest K, Custódio M, Hernandez Lucas S, Everaert G, Dewulf J. Towards a comprehensive sustainability methodology to assess anthropogenic impacts on ecosystems: Review of the integration of life cycle assessment, environmental risk assessment and ecosystem services assessment. Science of the Total Environment. 2022;808:152125.

Jaiswal D, Pandey U, Mishra V, Pandey J. Integrating resilience with functional ecosystem measures: A novel paradigm for management decisions under multiple‐stressor interplay in freshwater ecosystems. Global Change Biology. 2021;27(16):3699–3717.

Gautam B. Microbiological quality assessment (including antibiogram and threat assessment) of bottled water. Food Science & Nutrition. 2021;9(4):1980–1988.

USEPA. Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund: Part A, Process for Conducting Probabilistic Risk Assessment. 2001b;3.

Barnhart B, Flinders C, Ragsdale R, Johnson G, Wiegand P. Deriving human health and aquatic life water quality criteria in the United States for bioaccumulative substances: A historical review and future perspective. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 2021;40(9):2394–2405.

Edori O. Physical and chemical characteristics of water from Ede Onyima Creek, Okarki-Engenni, Rivers State, Nigeria. 2020;5:144-154.
Accessed September 10, 2020.

Rizk R, Juzsakova T, ben Ali M, Rawash MA, Domokos E, Hedfi A, Almalki M, Boufahja F, Shafik H. M, Rédey K. Comprehensive environmental assessment of heavy metal contamination of surface water, sediments and Nile Tilapia in Lake Nasser, Egypt. Journal of King Saud University - Science. 2022; 34(1):101748.

Thomas C. Winter, Judson W. Harvey, O. Lehn Franke, William M. Alley. Groundwater and surface water: A single resource. Circular. 1998;1139.

Umar H, Abdul Khanan M, Ogbonnaya C, Shiru M, Ahmad A, Baba A. Environmental and socioeconomic impacts of pipeline transport interdiction in Niger Delta, Nigeria. Heliyon. 2021;7(5): e06999.

Arambawatta-Lekamge SH, Pathiratne A, Rathnayake IVN. Sensitivity of freshwater organisms to cadmium and copper at tropical temperature exposures: Derivation of tropical freshwater ecotoxicity thresholds using species sensitivity distribution analysis. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 2021;211:111891.

Chen J, Jayachandran M, Bai W, Xu B. A critical review on the health benefits of fish consumption and its bioactive constituents. Food Chemistry. 2022;369:130874.

European Union. Directive (EU) 2020/2184 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2020 on the quality of water intended for human consumption (recast) (Text with EEA relevance). Official Journal. 2020;L 435, 23.12.2020:1–62.

Lasota J, ŁYszczarz S, Kempf P, Kempf M, Błońska E. Effect of species composition on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) accumulation in urban forest soils of Krakow. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution. 2021; 232(2).


Proshad R, Kormoker T, Abdullah Al M, Islam MS, Khadka S, Idris AM. Receptor model-based source apportionment and ecological risk of metals in sediments of an urban river in Bangladesh. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2022;423:127030.

Dendievel AM, Grosbois C, Ayrault S, Evrard O, Coynel A, Debret M, Gardes T, Euzen C, Schmitt L, Chabaux F, Winiarski T, van der Perk M, Mourier B. Key factors influencing metal concentrations in sediments along Western European Rivers: A long-term monitoring study (1945–2020). Science of the Total Environment. 2022;805: 149778.

Yang L, Li J, Zhou K, Feng P, Dong L. The effects of surface pollution on urban river water quality under rainfall events in Wuqing district, Tianjin, China. Journal of Cleaner Production. 2021;293: 126136.

Lumb A, Halliwell D, Sharma T. Application of CCME water quality index to monitor water quality: a case study of the mackenzie River Basin, Canada. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 2006; 113(1–3):411–429.

Raja P, Karthikeyan P, Marigoudar SR, Venkatarama Sharma K, Ramana Murthy MV. Spatial distribution of total petroleum hydrocarbons in surface sediments of Palk Bay, Tamil Nadu, India. Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology. 2022;4:20–28.

EGASPIN-DPR. Environmental guidelines and standards for the petroleum industry in Nigeria (revised Ed.); 2010.

Osuji LC, Onojake CM. Field reconnaissance and estimation of petroleum hydrocarbon and heavy metal contents of soils affected by the Ebocha-8 oil spillage in Niger Delta, Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Management. 2006;79(2):133–139.

Edori ES, Marcus AC. Total petroleum hydrocarbons content of Taylor Creek, Rivers State, Niger Delta Nigeria. International Journal of Advanced Research in Chemical Science. 2019;6(12).

SON. Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality. Nigerian Industrial Standard, NIS. 2007;554:13-14.

Malina JF, Barrett ME, Jackson A, Kramer T. Characterization of stormwater runoff from a bridge deck and approach highway, effects on receiving water quality: University of Texas at Austin, Center for Transportation Research, Federal Highway Administration Publication FHWA/TX–06/0–4543–1. 2005; 88.


CCME (Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment). Canadian Sediment Quality Guidelines for the Protection of Aquatic Life; 1999.

Shaji E, Santosh M, Sarath K, Prakash P, Deepchand V, Divya B. Arsenic contamination of groundwater: A global synopsis with focus on the Indian Peninsula. Geoscience Frontiers. 2021;12(3):101079.

WHO. Guidelines for drinking-water quality: fourth edition incorporating the first addendum. World Health Organization, Geneva; 2017.

Cannon WF, Kimball BE, Corathers LA. Manganese, chap. L of Schulz KJ, DeYoung, JH, Jr, Seal RR, II, Bradley DC, eds, Critical mineral resources of the United States—Economic and environmental geology and prospects for future supply: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper. 2017;1802,:L1– L28.

McKinley K, McLellan I, Gagné F, Quinn, B. The toxicity of potentially toxic elements (Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn and Ni) to the cnidarian Hydra attenuata at environmentally relevant concentrations. Science of The Total Environment. 2019;665:848–854.

Barr MN, Kalkhoff SJ. Water-quality trends of urban streams in Independence, Missouri, 2005–18: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2020–5130. 2021;57.

Kingsbury JA, Bexfield LM, Arnold T, Musgrove M, Erickson ML, Degnan JR, Tesoriero AJ, Lindsey BD, Belitz K. Groundwater-quality and select quality-control data from the National Water-Quality Assessment Project, January 2017 through December 2019: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series. 2021;1136:97.

Richards JM, Barr MN. Supporting data for analysis of general water-quality conditions, long-term trends, and network analysis at selected sites within the Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network in Missouri, water years 1993–2017: U.S. Geological Survey data release; 2021.

Kabata-Pendias A, Pendias H. Trace elements in soils and plants. 3rd Edition, CRC Press, Boca Raton. 2001;403.

Moiseenko TI, Gashkina NA, Dinu MI, Kremleva TA, Khoroshavin VY. Aquatic geochemistry of small lakes: Effects of environment changes. Geochemistry International. 2013;51(13):1031–1148.

UNEP. Global drinking water quality index development and sensitivity analysis report. United Nations Environment Programme Global Environmental Monitoring System (GEMS)/Water Programme; 2007. ISBN 92-95039-14-9.

Moskovchenko DV, Babushkin AG, Yurtaev AA. The impact of the Russian oil industry on surface water quality (a case study of the Agan River catchment, West Siberia). Environmental Earth Sciences. 2020; 79(14).

Uzoekwe S, Aigberua A. Heavy metal distribution and assessment of ecological risk in surface waters and sediment within the flow stations in Kolo Creek, Nigeria. Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria. 2019;44(5).

Walumona JR, Kaunda‐Arara B, Odoli Ogombe C, Murakaru JM, Raburu P, Muvundja Amisi F, Nyakeya K, Kondowe BN. Effects of lake‐level changes on water quality and fisheries production of Lake Baringo, Kenya. Ecohydrology. Published; 2021.

Williams‐Subiza EA, Epele LB. Drivers of biodiversity loss in freshwater environments: A bibliometric analysis of the recent literature. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems. 2021;31(9):2469–2480.