Synthesis of Bio-based Polyol Via Epoxidation and Hydroxylation of Shea Butter Fats

Eucharia Agborma Emeka-Chioke

Department of Industrial Chemistry, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu State, Nigeria.

Prisca Ifeoma Udeozo

Department of Industrial Chemistry, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu State, Nigeria.

Okechukwu Paul Nsude

Department of Industrial Chemistry, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu State, Nigeria.

Theresa Orieiji Uchechukwu

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Physical Sciences, Alex Ekwueme Federal University, Ndufu Alike, Nigeria.

Kingsley John Orie *

Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.

Okoro Ogbobe

Department of Industrial Chemistry, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu State, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Polyols are mostly made from petroleum and other non-biodegradable fossil fuels, and as such, they are not environmentally benign. This study presents the process of making bio-based polyols from shea butter fats (SBF) by epoxidation and hydroxylation. Wet analysis, gas chromatography with flame-ionization detection (GC-FID), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were all used to characterize the bio-based polyols. The acid number (13.92 mg KOH/g), iodine value (19.54 mg I2/100 g), saponification value (218.03 mg KOH/g), and viscosity (107.98 poise) suggest a good quality of synthesized SBF-polyol. The FTIR analysis of SBF-polyol indicates the existence of specific vibrational frequencies: 3473 cm-1 for hydroxyl (OH) groups, 2921–2854 cm-1, and 2929–2858 cm-1 for carbon-hydrogen (C-H) and methylene (CH2) groups, respectively, and 1748 cm-1 for carbonyl (-C=O) groups. The major unsaturated fatty acids detected in SBF were oleic acid, with an estimation of 10.41%; linoleic acid and linolenic acid were reported at 0.34% and 1.67%, respectively; however, they were absent in SBF-polyol. According to this data, bio-based polyols can be synthesized using SBF and are suggested for the production of top-notch polyols.

Keywords: Epoxidation, hydroxylation, polyol, shea butter fat

How to Cite

Emeka-Chioke, E. A., Udeozo , P. I., Nsude, O. P., Uchechukwu , T. O., Orie , K. J., & Ogbobe , O. (2024). Synthesis of Bio-based Polyol Via Epoxidation and Hydroxylation of Shea Butter Fats. Journal of Applied Chemical Science International, 15(1), 1–9.


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