##### ANTIFUNGAL SCREENING OF GARLIC CLOVE EXTRACT AGAINST FUNGI CAUSING SPOILAGE IN OGBONO SEED (Irvingia gabonensis)

EJIMOFOR, C. F., NWAKOBY, N. E., EZENWATA, I. S.

Journal of Applied Chemical Science International, Page 14-24

Ogbono (Irvingia gabonensis) is a commercial and indigenous fruit tree of west and central Africa commonly known as African manago or wild manago .Garlic (Allium sativum) which is also used in this study  has been used for centuries as a food supplement and has been well documented for its  medicinal properties  in traditional and conventional medicine. This study was carried out in Awka metropolis Anambra State Nigeria. Isolation olate and identification of fungi associated with the deterioration of Ogbono seed  and the inhibition of those fungi isolated growth using garlic cloves extract as an antifungal. Spoilt Ogbono seeds (samples) were purchased from five selected Market Centers in Awka metropolis, and transported immediately to Alpha research laboratory Awka including garlic cloves for analysis. A crude  plant extraction process was carried out on the garlic cloves under optimum operating conditions to obtain the active compound (garlic extract). Each of the spoilt Ogbono seed was cut and washed and the content inoculated on Potato Dextrose Agar and Sabouraud Dextrose Agar respectively and incubated at  28oc and observed for three days after which , the different colonies obtained were identified using the slide culture technique. The fungal analysis shows that Aspergillus spp, Mucor spp, Fusarium spp and Penicillium spp are associated with  the spoilt of Ogbono seed with frequencies of occurrence of 37.50%, 25%,12.50% and 25% respectively. The antifungal activity of garlic seed extracts was determined on all fungi isolate. From the results it is clear that the antifungal activity in inhibiting fungi growth increases as the amount (concentration) of garlic extract increased. From the obtained fungi isolate, Aspergillus spp, Mucor spp, Fusarium spp, Penicillium spp at 5.00mg/ml, the zone of inhibition   were 12.333, 25.000, 17.338, and 0.000 respectively. No effects on the inhibition of Penicillium Spp growth were observed. It can be concluded from the study that   garlic extract showed antifungal activity against the tested fungi organism and it’s suitable in inhibiting growth of fungi in spoilt Ogbono seed.

##### EFFECT OF SEASONAL VARIATION ON THE PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SURFACE WATER AND SEDIMENTS OF SOMBRIERO RIVER IN RIVERS STATE, NIGERIA

BARTHOLOMEW EZE ALOZIE, LEO CHIGBU OSUJI, ADUABOBO IBITORU HART

Journal of Applied Chemical Science International, Page 51-69

Due to the vulnerability of the Sombriero River to contaminants, the effect of seasonal variation on the physico-chemical characteristics of the Sombriero River was investigated with respect to its sediment and surface water samples to ascertain the degree of alterations from the natural background level of the river and adherence to regulatory standards. Surface water and sediments were collected at seven selected sites along the Sombriero River. The dry season sampling was carried out in December, 2020, while the wet season sampling took place in May, 2021. The samples were analyzed in the laboratory following standard operational procedures. The results indicated high alterations (p< 0.05) in the concentrations of cadmium, nickel, zinc, iron, total dissolved solids, turbidity, biochemical oxygen demand, and chemical oxygen demand, beyond the background values of Nigeria’s Department of Petroleum Resources (DPR) and Federal Ministry of Environment (FMENV). The majority of the heavy metals, notably copper, cadmium, lead, manganese, nickel, zinc, and iron, had higher concentrations in water during the dry season, while sodium, potassium, and magnesium showed an increase in concentration in surface water during the wet season. However, the pH level was within the target background values of DPR and FMENV, and showed no significant variation in the dry and wet seasons. For instance, surface water had a pH range of 6.65 –7.18 in the wet season, and 6.93 –7.18 in the dry season. Sediments ranged from 6.06 – 6.59 and 6.10 – 6.88 during the wet season and dry season, respectively. The quality of water influences the health status of any populace, hence, analysis of water for physical, chemical, and biological properties is very important.

##### SOMBOR INDICES OF $$TUAC_{6}$$ AND $$TUZC_{6}$$ NANOTUBES

B. K. DIVYASHREE, R. JAGADEESH, . SIDDABASAPPA

Journal of Applied Chemical Science International, Page 70-79

In a molecular structure, topological indices help us to capture the uniformity of the structure and also provide us the scientific provincialism to predict properties such as radius of gyrations, boiling points, viscosity etc. In this paper, we compute the sombor indices and the multiplicative sombor indices of $$TUAC_{6}[n,m]$$ and $$TUZC_{6}[n,m]$$ nanotubes. These degree-based topological indices formulas for the nanotubes build the connection which diffuses on the structure of the parameters and also in association, determine the properties of the nanotubes. We also plot the graphs to see the effects of our results on the considered parameters.

##### IMPORTANCE OF THE COLOR TEMPERATURE IN COLD WHITE LIGHT EMISSION OF Ca2MgSi2O7: Dy3+ PHOSPHOR

SHASHANK SHARMA, SANJAY KUMAR DUBEY

Journal of Applied Chemical Science International, Page 80-90

A promising candidate of white light-emitting (Ca2MgSi2O7: Dy3+) phosphor was successfully synthesized via traditional high-temperature solid-state synthesis technique using boric acid (H3BO3) as a fuel. The synthesized material sample was characterized with the help of powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), FT-IR (Fourier Transform Infra-red) Spectroscopy, FESEM (Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy) and PL (Photoluminescence) spectra. Using the Debye-Scherer formula and UDM method, the crystallite size and crystal lattice strain were evaluated, respectively. Photoluminescence (PL) properties (both excitation & emission spectra) for the prepared phosphor were systematically investigated in detail. Photoluminescence spectra were revealed that the strong transition of spectral emission lines centered at 484nm (blue), 578nm (yellow) and weak transition of spectral emission lines centered at 615nm (red) wavelength. These peaks were assigned to following transitions (4F9/26H15/2,13/2,11/2), which are responsible for the (f→f)  transitions from the ground  level (lower energy state) to excited level (higher energy state) in the 4f9electronic configuration of dopant [Dy3+] ions. CIE color chromaticity coordinates and Color Correlated Temperature (CCT) of synthesized Ca2MgSi2O7: Dy3+ phosphor sample is well suited for the generation of cold white light emission with a CIE coordinate value of (X = 0.31, Y = 0.32) and CCT value also calculated as 5167K. Here upon, it is highly applicable to be a novel hopeful phosphor for cold WLEDs.

##### A SHORT REVIEW: THE EFFECT OF NANOMATERIALS FOR THERMAL DECOMPOSITION OF SOLID PROPELLANT OXIDIZER AP

PRAGNESH DAVE, SHALINI CHATURVEDI, RIDDHI THAKKAR, RUKSANA SIRACH

Journal of Applied Chemical Science International, Page 1-13

This review attempts to discuss data related to the work of kinds of literature on various nanomaterials such as ferrites, oxides, and chromates of transition metals which lead to gain prominent attention in the field of thermal decomposition of solid propellant oxidizer mainly ammonium perchlorate (AP).  The effect of catalysts like metal oxides, inorganic and organic compounds, etc., is discussed for the thermal decomposition of  ammonium perchlorate (AP). This study underscores the experimental effectiveness of these catalysts in the decomposition process of solid propellants which enhances fast decomposition through decreasing their exothermic peak temperature. Such kind of improvements in propellant oxidizer and binder fuel help to increase the efficiency of rocket missiles.

GRAPHICAL ABSTRACT

This short review includes the discussion on thermolysis of propellant oxidizers and their composite solid propellants from the few prime lists of literature. This aims to understand the behavior of nanomaterials as a catalyst for the thermal decomposition of propellant oxidizer ammonium perchlorate. Ammonium perchlorate has a polyhedron-like shape that undergoes decomposition upon heating from room temperature to ~420 ℃ with gaseous by-products. In the presence of catalyst, the decomposition occurred at a lower temperature than the pure ammonium perchlorate. Thus, it can be used in the formulation of propulsion systems that mainly improve their burn rate ultimately helpful in rocketry.

##### BIOPOLYMERIC NANOCOMPOSITE SCAFFOLDS FOR NERVE TISSUE ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS: A REVIEW

D. SWITHA, S. KHALEEL BASHA, V. SUGANTHA KUMARI

Journal of Applied Chemical Science International, Page 25-50

Human biological processes are heavily influenced by nervous system and it interacts in physiological processes, such as cognition and individual cell function therefore; injury of the peripheral or central nervous system (PNS or CNS) causes loss of sensory and motor functions, affecting the patients’ quality of life. The regeneration capability of the human adult nervous system is often limited, and its recovery is difficult due to the complex physiology system and limited regenerative capacity. Tissue engineering is a novel clinical treatment field utilizing a blend of polymeric scaffolds and cells, representing a promising methodology for nerve recovery. The engineered materials and the fabricated neural scaffolds have gained expanding consideration in the field of nerve repairs. Nerve scaffolds surpass autologous nerve grafts in terms of implantation rate and outcome. Additionally, they foster a conducive cellular environment enabling axonal proliferation, neurite extension and connection, and neural cell survivability, adhesion, and migration. Due to their exceptional chemical and physical capabilities, numerous natural and manmade polymeric materials have been preferentially used during neural scaffolds to date. This review article presents various natural and synthetic polymers being used in neural tissue engineering, along with their benefits and challenges for neural recovery.