ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY, GLYCEMIC INDEX AND GLYCEMIC LOAD OF BOILED AND ROASTED COCOYAM (Xanthosoma mafaffa Schott) TUBER

PDF

Published: 2022-12-31

DOI: 10.56557/jafsat/2022/v9i48022

Page: 21-30


ANTHONY N. UKOM *

Department of Food Science and Technology, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria.

LILIAN N. NWANAGBA

Department of Food Science and Technology, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria.

CHRISTIANA O. OGUZIE

Department of Food Science and Technology, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Xanthosoma mafaffa Schott (XMS) is an underutilized cocoyam that is relatively rich in food nutrients and antioxidant constituents. However, information on the values of glycemic index (GI) and the glycemic load (GL) of XMS is limited. Thus, this study was undertaking to contribute information on antioxidant activity and nutritional data of GI and GL values using boiled and roasted XMS tuber. Anthropometric measurements, GI, GL and antioxidant constituents were determined according to standard methods. Results showed variations in the tested parameters. Antioxidant constituents varied for carotenoids (14.33 to 49.08 mg/100gfw), total polyphenols (122.02 to 159.45 mgGAE/100gfw), total flavonoids (62.05 to 161.32 mgQE/100gfw), ascorbic acid (2.04 to 6.17 mg/100gfw) and tocopherol (1.31 to 2.63 mg/100gfw). Antioxidant activity assayed by DPPH, ABTS and FRAP ranged from 14.21 to 36.73%, 11.28 to 77.15 µmTE/100gfw and 6.03 to 19.36 mgTE/gfw. Glycemic index of standard food (glucose) and processed Xanthosoma maffafa Schott showed variance in the glycemic response (GR) from 4.17 to 4.53 mmol/L at 0 min fasting blood sugar, 4.50 to 6.83 mmol/L at 15 min, 4.60 to 7.53 mmol/L at 30 min, 4.20 to 8.37 mmol/L at 60 min, 4.27 to 5.90 mmol/L at 90 min and 4.27 to 5.77 mmol/L at 120 min post feeding intervals. In general, GI of boiled XMS (91.30 mmol/L) was higher than the roasted XMS (68.69 mmol/L) meal. With high antioxidant compounds, strong antioxidant activity, and a medium GI of roasted Xanthosoma maffafa Schott meal, it can act as a functional food to scavenge free radicals, prevent degenerative disorders and boost physiological health of consumers.

Keywords: Cocoyam tuber, processing methods, bioactive constituents, glycemic index, glycemic load, health benefit


How to Cite

UKOM, A. N., NWANAGBA, L. N., & OGUZIE, C. O. (2022). ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY, GLYCEMIC INDEX AND GLYCEMIC LOAD OF BOILED AND ROASTED COCOYAM (Xanthosoma mafaffa Schott) TUBER. Journal of Advances in Food Science & Technology, 9(4), 21–30. https://doi.org/10.56557/jafsat/2022/v9i48022

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Owusu-Darko PG, Paterson A, Omenyo EL. Cocoyam (corms and cormmels)-An underexploited food and feed resources. Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment. 2014;3:22-29.

Igbozulike AO. Evaluation of cocoyam corms processing and Storage in Nigeria. International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research. 2015;6(7):259- 268.

Erlinawati I. The diversity of terrestrial Araceae in Watuwila complex, South-east of Sulawesi. Journal of Biological Resources. 2010;15:131-137.

Hunter AS, Lam, SY, Nakayama TM, Lin H. Microbiological and chemical changes in poi stored at 20ºC. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry. 2012;42(1):45-48.

Ijioma JC, Effiong JB, Ogbonna MO, Onwuamaoka EA. Determ-inants of adoption of selected NRCRI cocoyam technologies among farmers in Umuahia South Local Government Area of Abia State, Nigeria. American International Journal of Contemporary Research. 2014;4(6):1-10.

Ukom AN, Ojimelukwe PC, Emetole JO. Physicochemical and functional properties of Starches of some under-utilized yam (Dioscorea spp.) and cocoyam (Xanthosoma maffa Scoth) tubers from Southeast Nigeria. Starch/Starke (Wiley- VCH). 2015;67:1- 6.

DOI: 10.1002/star.20500114

Ukom AN, Kalu LO, Udofia. Evaluation of the chemical properties and sensory attributes of biscuits produced from wheat and cocoyam (Xanthosoma mafaffa Schott) flour blends. Nig. J. Agric, Food and Environ. 2019;15(1): 89-96.

Ukom AN, Richard CP, Abasiekong SK. Effect of processing on the proximate, functional and anti-nutritional properties of cocoyam (Xanthosoma maffa scoth) flour. Nigerian Food Journal. 2018;35(2):9-17.

Ukom AN, Ojimelukwe PC, Ezeama CF, Ortiz DO, Aragon IJ. Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of some under-utilized Nigerian yam (Dioscorea spp.) and cocoyam (Xanthosoma maffa (scoth)) tubers. Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology. 2014b;8(7):104-111.

Ukom AN, Okerue CFL. Determination of the nutrients, anti-nutrients and functional properties of processed cocoyam (Xanthosoma sagittifolium) Cultivars Grown in Southeast, Nigeria. Sustainable Food Production. 2018;1:11-21.

Ukom AN, Ojimelukwe PC, Ezeama CF, Ortiz DO, Aragon IJ. Proximate composition and carotenoids profile of yam (Dioscorea spp.) and cocoyam (Xanthosoma maffa Scoth) root tubers from Nigeria. American Journal of Food and Nutrition. 2014a;4(1):1- 10.

Obidiegwu JE, Kendabie P, Obidiegwu O, Amadi C. Towards an enhanced breeding in cocoyam: a review of past and future research perspectives. Research and Reviews: Journal of Botanical Sciences. 2016;5(4):22-33.

Ogbuji CA, David-Chukwu N.P. Glycemic indices of different cassava food products. European Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences. 2016;3(3):1-7.

Champagne A, Bernillon S, Moing A, Robin D, Legendre L, Lebot V. Carotenoid profiling of Tropical root crop chemotypes from Vanuatu, South Pacific. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 2010;. 23: 763-771.

Ferede R, Maziys-Dioxin B, Oladeji EA, Asiedu A. Identification and quantification of major carotenoids of deep yellow-fleshed yam. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment. 2010;8(3-4):160-166.

Achikanu CE, Eze-Steven PE, Ude CM, Ugwuokolie OC. Determination of the vitamin and mineral composition of common leafy vegetables in south eastern Nigeria. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. 2013;2(11):347-353.

Okwu DE, Josiah C. Evaluation of chemical composition of two Nigerian medicinal plants. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2006;5(4):357-361.

Yong SP, Soon TT, Seong GK, Buk GH, Patricia AA, Fernando T. Antioxidants and proteins in ethylene-treated kiwi fruits. Food Chemistry. 2008;107(2):640-648.

Georgé S, Brat P, Alter P, Amiot MJ. Rapid determination of polyp-phenols and vitamin c in plant- derived products. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2005;53:1370-1373.

Ellong EN, Billard C, Adenet S, Rochefort K. Polyphenols, caroteno-ids, vitamin C content in tropical fruits and vegetables and impact of processing methods. Food and Nutrition Sciences. 2015;6:299-313.

Benzie IF, Strain JJ. The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of “antioxidant power”: the FRAP assay. Analytical Biochemistry. 1996;239:70–76.

Omage K, Omage SO. Evaluation of the glycemic indices of three commonly eaten mixed meals in Okada, Edo State. Food Science and Nutrition. 2018;6:220– 228.

FAO/WHO. (1998). Carbohydrates in Human Nutrition. FAO Food and Nutrition Paper 66, Report of an FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on Carbohydrates, 14-18 April 1997, Food and Nutrition Paper, FAO, Rome. 1998;140.

Brouns F, Bjorck I, Frayn KN, Gibbs AL, Lang V, Slama G, Wolever TMS. Glycaemic index methodology. Nutrition Research Reviews. 2005;18(1):145-171.

DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/NRR2005100

Brand-Miller J, Wolever TMS, Foster-Powell K, Colagiuri S. The new glucose revolution: The authoritative guide to the glycemic index. Marlowe and Company, New York; 2003.

Salmeron J, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Wing AL, Willett WC. Dietary fiber, glycaemic load, and risk of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in women. JAMA. 1997;277(6):472- 477.

DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1997.03540300040031

Atkinson SF, Foster-Powell K, Brand-Miller JC. International tables of glycemic index and glycemic load values: 2008. Diabetes Care. 2008;31(12): 2281-2283.

DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc08-1239

Venn BJ, Green TJ. Glycemic index and glycemic load: measurement issues and their effect on diet disease relationships. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2007;61(1):S122-S131.

DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602942

Sefa-Dedeh S, Emmanuel KA. Chemical composition and the effect of processing on oxalate content of cocoyam Xanthosoma sagittifolium and Colocasia esculenta cormels. Food Chem. 2004;85:479–487.

Adegunwa MO, Alamu EO, Omitogun LA. Effect of processing on the nutritional contents of yam and cocoyam tubers. J Applied Biosci. 2011;6:3086–3092.

Aovi FI, Irin T, Islam A. Phytochemical investigations and pharmacological screening of Xanthosoma sagittifolium (l.) leaf extract. Pharmacologyonline (PHOL). 2018;3:75-80.

Araújo S, Araújo P, Giunco AJ, Silva SM, Argandoña EJS. Bromatology, food chemistry and antioxidant activity of Xanthosoma sagittifolium (L.) Schott. Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture. 2019;31(3): 188-195

Rui HL. Health benefits of fruit and vegetables are from additive and synergistic combinations of phytochemicals. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;78:517S–520S.

Slattery ML, Benson J, Curtin K, Ma KN, Schaeffer D, Potter JD. Carotenoids and colon cancer. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2000;71(2):575-582.

Scalbert A, Manach C, Morand C, Rémésy C, Jiménez L. Dietary polyphenols and the prevention of diseases. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 2005;45 (4):287-306.

Rice-Evans CA, Miller J, Paganga G. Antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds, Trends Plant Sci. 1997;2:152-159.

Denre M. The determination of vitamin C, total phenol and antioxidant activity of some commonly cooking spices crops used in West Bengal. International Journal of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry. 2014;6(6):66-70.

Cook NC, Samman S. Flavonoids—chemistry, metabolism, cardioprotective effects, and dietary sources. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry. 1996;7(2):66-76.

Tanvir EM, Hossen M, Hossain M, Afroz R, Gan SH, Khalil M, Karim N. Antioxidant properties of popular turmeric (Curcuma longa) varieties from Bangladesh. Journal of Food Quality. 2017;1-8.

Tilak JC, Banerjee M, Mohan H, Devasagayam TPA. Antioxidant availability of turmeric in relation to its medicinal and culinary uses. Phytotherapy Research. 2004;18 (10):798–804.

Saxena M, Saxena J, Pradhan A. Flavonoids and phenolic acids as antioxidants in plants and human health. Int. Journal Pharmaceutical Sciences Review Research. 2012;16(2):130-134.

Okwu DE. Phytochemicals and Vitamin content of indigenous spices of South Eastern Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture and Environment. 2004;6:30-34.

Button KC. Prescription for nutritional healing. Penguin Putnam. 2004;4(5):478- 479.

Guyton C, Hall JE. Textbook of medical physiology. Elsevier publisher, Philadelphia, India. 2006;11: 113-115.

Zingg JM, Azii A, Myedani M. Genetic polymorphisms as determinates for disease-preventive effects of vitamin E. Nutritional Reviews. 2008;66:406-410.

Borra SK, Gurumurthy P, Mahendra J. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of curcumin determined by using different in vitro and ex vivo models, Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 2013;7(36):2680–2690, 2013.

Viuda-Martos M, Ruiz-Navajas Y, Fernandez-Lopez J, Perez-Alvarez JA. Acta Chimica Slovenica. 2007;54:921.

Kouamé AC, Kouassi KN, N’dri YD, Amani NG. Glycaemic index and load values tested in normoglycemic adults for five staple foodstuffs: pounded yam, pounded cassava-plantain, placali, attieke and maize meal stiff porridge. Nutrients. 2015;7:1267-1281.

Björck I, Elmståhl HL. The glycaemic index: importance of dietary fibre and other food properties. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. 2003;62(1):201-206.

Sleeth MA, Psichas A, Frost G. Weight Gain and Insulin Sensitivity: A Role for the Glycaemic Index and Dietary Fibre? British Journal of Nutrition. 2012;109(9): 1539-1541.

DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114512005016

Wolever TMS, Katzman-Relle L, Jenkins AL, Vuksan V, Josse RB, DJ. Jenkins D.J. Glycaemic Index of 102 Complex Carbohydrate Foods in Patients with Diabetes, Nutrition Research. 1994;14(5):651-669.

DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0271-5317(05)80201-5

Bhupathiraju NS, Tobias KD, Malik SV, Pan A, Adela H, JoAnn E, Manson EAJ, Willett CW, Hu BF. Glycemic index, glycemic load, and risk of type 2 diabetes: Results from 3 large US cohorts and an updated meta-analysis. AJCN. 2014;100:218–232.

Pineau H. Etat Nutritionnel et Qualité de l’Alimentation des Enfants de Moins de Deux ans Dans le Village de Damé (Côte d’Ivoire) Identification et Estimation de la Valeur et de l’Apport Nutritionnels des Aliments de Complément. DESS Nutrition et Alimentation dans les Pays en Développement; 2004.

Available:http://www.museum .agropolis.fr/pages /savoirs/ agroalim_ ci/Pineau_DESS_2004.pdf (accessed on 5 December, 2019).

Mendosa D. Revised international table of glycemic index (GI) and Glycemic Load (GL) Values—2008; 2008.

Available:http://www.mendosa.com/gilists.htm

(accessed on 5 December, 2019).