Non-Compliance of Fresh Nile Perch (Lates niloticus) Fisheries Products from Uganda

Johnson A. Ssubi *

Department of Food Technology & Nutrition, College of Agricultural and Environmental Science, School of Food Technology, Nutrition & Bioengineering, P.O. Box 7062, Makerere University Kampala, Uganda.

Ivan M. Mukisa

Department of Food Technology & Nutrition, College of Agricultural and Environmental Science, School of Food Technology, Nutrition & Bioengineering, P.O. Box 7062, Makerere University Kampala, Uganda.

Charles K. Muyanja

Department of Food Technology & Nutrition, College of Agricultural and Environmental Science, School of Food Technology, Nutrition & Bioengineering, P.O. Box 7062, Makerere University Kampala, Uganda.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


This study aimed to assess official monitoring data for fresh Nile perch fisheries products in Uganda. This review focuses on identifying patterns of non-compliance with food safety standards and understanding hazards associated with the Nile perch value chain. The results will serve as a basis for updating/improving pertinent Uganda Standards and regulations. An in-depth analysis was conducted utilizing secondary data for 14 factories encompassing official laboratory results spanning twelve years (2010-2022), sourced from the Department of Fisheries Resources records. Frequency distribution tables were employed to determine trends in non-compliance, emphasizing both the frequency and parameters contributing to deviations from safety standards. Examination of non-compliance trends, done using the Mann-Kendall test, revealed a compliance rate of approximately 80% for fresh Nile perch products across the majority (10) of the studied factories. Four factories experienced non-compliance, exceeding 20% of the total monitoring samples at least once during the study period. Among these, only one factory consistently demonstrated non-compliance exceeding 20% throughout the entire review period. There was a correlation between the factories exhibiting the highest non-compliance rates and their history of frequent changes in ownership and/or management over the past two decades. Microbial analysis results highlighted Total Viable Count (TVC), Total Coliforms (TC), and Enterobacteriaceae as the predominant contributors to non-compliance. In addition, heavy metals, particularly lead and cadmium, emerged as prevalent chemical hazards associated with non-compliance in the fresh Nile perch value chain in Uganda. It is recommended that efforts be concentrated on addressing the prevalence of the identified microbiological parameters. Furthermore, a formal review of national standards is advised, with consideration for the removal of parameters such as Listeria monocytogenes, Vibrio cholerae, and Clostridium perfringens, which showed negligible occurrence. Instead, emphasis should be placed on incorporating Enterobacteriaceae, consistently prevalent in fresh Nile perch products across most factories throughout the entire review period.

Keywords: Nile perch, food safety, non-compliance, microbial analysis, hazard assessment

How to Cite

Ssubi , J. A., Mukisa , I. M., & Muyanja , C. K. (2024). Non-Compliance of Fresh Nile Perch (Lates niloticus) Fisheries Products from Uganda. Journal of Advances in Food Science & Technology, 11(2), 47–56.


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