Published: 2022-10-12

DOI: 10.56557/jirmeps/2022/v17i27891

Page: 43-52


Biomedical Sciences Division, STEM Science Center, 111 Charlotte Place Ste#100/Englewood Cliffs, NJ 07632, USA.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Spinal cord compression is caused when a mass exerts pressure on the cord. The mass usually originates from a growing tumor or bone abnormality. Compression can build up anywhere along the spinal cord, from the neck to the lower spine.  Spinal cord compression can also be caused by any condition that puts pressure on the spinal cord, such as if the vertebrae are physically damaged or pressed.   Back pain persists anywhere down the leg for common symptoms. Other symptoms include numbness in the toes or fingers or over the buttocks, feeling uncomfortable on your feet or difficulty walking, passing very little urine or being unable to urinate, and loss of bladder or bowel control. Despite this seriousness, not many study models have been documented.

This study examined the change of action potential parameters such as latent period, peak point, wave width, and trough point to show any functional relationship according to the increased weight placed on Lumbricus terrestris’ body. The compression of Lumbricus terrestris’ spinal cord by weight standards simulated the growing cancers in the confined spinal space. It concluded that the latent period and trough point were positively correlated, while peak point and wave width were negatively correlated. And the trend of parameter changes seemed to be consistent. Moderate changes were shown for all the parameters concerning weight load on the spine.  Further study might be warranted for detailed understanding the underlying mechanism of the parameter profiles.

Keywords: Action potential, latent period, peak point, spinal cord compression, trough point, wave width

How to Cite

LEE, M. (2022). INVESTIGATING THE ACTION POTENTIAL PARAMETERS INDUCED BY A SIMULATED SPINAL CORD COMPRESSION USING A Lumbricus terrestris MODEL. Journal of International Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 17(2), 43–52.


Download data is not yet available.


Ron MG. Menorca, Theron S. Fussell, and John C. Elfar, Peripheral nerve trauma: Mechanisms of injury and recovery, Hand Clinics. 2013;29(3):317-330.

Jason M. Highsmith. Spinal cord, nerves and the brain, Spine Universe, Spinal Anatomy Communication Central; 2019.

Axenhus M, Bogdanovic N. Confusion, cognitive impairment, and spinal cord compression caused by plasmacytoma: a case report. BMC Neural. 2021;21:303.

Jennifer M. Singleton, Matthew Hefner, Spinal cord compression, Star Pearls; 2022.

CDRF, Spinal tumors, Christopher & Dana Reeve Foundation.
Available: living-with-paralysis/health/causes-of-paralysis/spinal-tumors.

Peter S. Rose, Jacob M. Buchowski, “Metastatic disease in the thoracic and lumbar spine: Evaluation and management, Metastatic Disease in the Thoracic and Lumbar Spine: Evaluation and Management. 2011;19(1).

Endrit Ziu, Vibhu Krishnan Viswanathan, Fassil B. Mesfin, Spinal metastasis, Stat Pearls; 2022.

Filipa Macedo, Katia Ladeira, Filipa Pinho, Nadine Saraiva, Nuno Bonito, Luisa Pinto and Francisco Goncalves, Bone metastases: An overview, Oncology Reviews. 2017;11(1):321.

Peter Robson, Metastatic spinal cord compression: a rare but important complication of cancer, Clinical Medicine. 2014;14(5): 542-545.

Prostate Cancer UK, Advanced prostate cancer: Managing Symptoms.
Available: information/ advanced-prostate-cancer/advanced-prostate-cancer-managing-symptoms.

NHS. When it’s used: Lumbar Decompression Surgery.
Available:, Reviewed 28 April, 2022.

Kress GJ, Mennerick S. Action potential initiation and propagation: upstream influences on neurotransmission., Neuroscience. 2009; 158(1):211.

Steven M. Chrysafides, Stephen Bordes, Sandeep Sharma, “Physiology, resting potential”, Treasure Island (FL), Stat Pearls Publishing; 2022.

Pascal Kouyoumdjian, Nicolas Lonjon, Monica Prieto, Henri Haton, Alain Privat, Ge Asencio, Florence Perrin, Manuel Gaviria, A remotely controlled model of spinal cord compression injury in mice: Toward real-time analysis – Laboratory investigation, Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine. 2009;11(4):461-70.

Suelen Adriani Marques, Fernanda Martins Almeida, Klauss Mostacada, Ana M B Martinez, A highly reproducible mouse model of compression spinal cold injury, Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.). 2014;1162:149-56,.

Cheriyan T, Ryan DJ., Weinreb JH, Cheriyan J, Paul JC, Lafage V, Kirsch T, Errico TJ. Spinal cord injury models: a review, Spinal Cord. 2014;52:588 – 595.

Ashley McDonough, Angela Monterrubio, Jeanelle Ariza and Veronica Martinez-Cerdeno, Calibrated forceps model of spinal cord compression injury, Journal of Visualized Experiments. 2015;98:52318.

Zeraatpisheh Z, Mirzaei E, Nami M, Alipour H, Ghasemian S, Azari, et al. A New and Simple Method for Spinal Cord Injury Induction in Mice”, Basic and Clinical Neuroscience. 2022;13(1):47-56.

McDonough A, Hoang AN, Monterrubio AM, Greenhalgh S, Martinez-Cerdeno V. Compression injury in the mouse spinal cord elicits a specific proliferative response and distinct cell fate acquisition along rostro-caudal and dorso-ventral axes”. Neuroscience. 2013;254:1-17.

Alleen JF. King. The use of animal models in diabetes research”, British Journal of Pharmacology. 2012;166(3):877-894.

Molecular Expressions Optical Microscopy Primer Specialized Techniques, Earthworm Nervous Tissue, Florida State University, Differential Interference Contrast Image Gallery; 2015.

Glenn Munroe. Manual of on-farm Vermicom Posting and Vermiculture.