Main Article Content



Experimental plantations were conducted in the strong saline zone (Compartment Nos. 46) of Sundarbans with major mangrove species such as sundri (Heritiera fomes Buch.-Ham), gewa (Excoecaria agallocha L.), goran (Ceriops decandra Griff. Ding Hou), kirpa (Lumnitzera racemosa Willd), khalshi (Aegiceras corniculatum L. Blanco), passur (Xylocarpus mekongensis Pierre) and jhana (Rhizophora apeculata Lam). The objectives of this experimental research were to enrich unoccupied and poorly regenerated areas and to increase vegetation coverage and to improve biodiversity. Besides, conducted study helps to mitigate climate change through sustainable management of the ecosystem in strong saline zone in the Sundarbans. In the experimental plantation of strong saline water zone the average survival percentage of sundri, gewa, goran, kirpa, khalshi, jhana and passur are 27%, 59%, 50%, 34%, 72%, 62% and 52% respectively. Besides, age (in year) of sundri, gewa, goran, kirpa, khalshi, jhana and passur are 23, 19, 21, 23, 19, 5 and 8 respectively in Sundarbans. The Mean Annual Increment (MAI) were found of the species khalshi, gewa, kirpa, jhana, passur, goran, sundri for height (m) 0.23, 0.18, 0.22, 0.50, 0.38, 0.11. 0.10 and for DBH (cm) 0.29, 0.28, 0.25 respectively. Khalshi, jhana and gewa in strong saline water zone showed better survival percentage where khalshi, jhana and gewa possess same age in same ecological zone. Highest Mean Annual Increment (MAI) was observed for jhana and passur. Thus, vegetation coverage in the Sundarbans can be improved by raising massive experimental plantation of gewa, passur, khalshi, jhana through combination of other mangrove species in the strong saline water zone to mitigate climate change in this delta as well as to maintain plantation of the Sundarbans ecosystems and biodiversity on a sustainable basis.

Barren land, climate change, mangrove species, sundarbans

Article Details

How to Cite
Original Research Article


Rahman AA, Seal the deal in copenhagen: The Most Vulnerable Communities Demand Tearfund; 2009.

SCBD. Connecting biodiversity and climate change mitigation and adaptation. Report of the Second Ad Hoc Technical Expert Group on Biodiversity and Climate Change Montreal: Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity Technical Series. 2009;41:126.

Biswas SR, Choudhury JK, Nishat A, Rahman M Do invasive plants threaten theSundarbans mangrove forest of Bangladesh? Forest Ecology and Management. 2007;245:1-9.

Prain, D. The flora of Sundarbans: Records of the Botanical Survey of India. 1903;114:231-370.

Chaffey DR, Miller FR, Sandoom JH. A forest inventory of the Sundarbans, Bangladesh: Main Report Project Report No. 140, Overseas Development administration, London. 1985;196.

Helal Siddiqui. Flora and faunal resources and ecosystem conservation in the Sundarbans. IJAIR, (India). 2016;5(3):440-467. ISSN (Online): 2319-1473.

Helal Siddiqui, Islam MA. Vegetation scenarios of artificially planted mangrove species in the sundarbans as a tool to mitigate climate change issues in Bangladesh. Indian Forester. 2000;146(8):736-583.
DOI: 10.36808/if/2020/v146i8/148406 ISSN: 0019-4816 eISSN: 2321-094X.

Faizuddin M. Rahman MM, Shahidullah M, Helal Siddiqui AS. M.H.A, Hasnin M, Rashid MH. Survival and growth performance of some mangrove species planted in the Sundarbans of Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Forest Science. 1999;27(2):121-127.

FAO. Integrated resources management plan of the Sundarbans reserved forest-final report. UNDP/FAO Project BGD/84/056, FAO, Rome; 1995.

Islam S. Sustainable Eco-tourism as a practical site management policy.AHDPH, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 2003.

Polidoro BA, Carpenter KE, Collins L, Duke NC, Ellison AM, Ellison JC, Farnsworth EJ, Fernando ES, Kathiresan K, Koedam NE, Livingstone SR, Miyagi T, Moore GE, Ngoc Nam V, Ong JE, Primavera JH, Salmo III SG. The loss of species: mangrove extinction risk and geographic areas of global concern. PLoS One. 2010;5:e10095.

Alongi DM. The impact of climate change on mangrove forests. Curr. Clim.Change Rep. 2015;1:30–39.

CEGIS. Coastal land use zoning in the southwest: impact of sea level rise onlanduse suitability and adaptation options.(Draft Final Report); 2005.

Mohal N, Khan ZH, Rahman N. Impact of Sea level rise on coastal rivers of Bangladesh. Institute of Water Modelling (IWM) Assessment conducted for WARPO, an organization under Ministry of Water Resources; 2006.

Luetz J, Planet prepare: preparing coastal communities in Asia for future catastrophes; 2008.

Helal Siddiqui, Khair A. Regeneration Status and Identification of Heart Rot Disease of Pasur (Xylocarpus mekongensis) Tree in the Sundarbans of Bangladesh. Indian Journal of Forestry. 2012;35(4):435-442.

Agrawala S, Ota T, Ahmed AU, Smith J, van Aalst M. Development and climatechange in Bangladesh: focus on coastal flooding and the Sundarbans. OCDE (Organización de Cooperación Desarrollo Económicos), París; 2003.

Ellison AM, Mukherjee BB, Karim A. Testing patterns of zonation inmangroves: Scale dependence and environmental correlates in theSundarbans of Bangladesh. Journal of Ecology. 2000;88(5):813–824.

Ghosh M, Kumar L, Roy C. Mapping long-term changes in mangrove species Composition and Distribution in the Sundarbans. Forests. 2016;7(12):305.

Iftekhar MS, Islam MR. Degeneration of Bangladesh? Sundarbans mangroves: amanagement issue. International Forestry Review. 2004;6:123–135.

Aziz A, Paul A.. Bangladesh Sundarbans: Present status of the environment and Biota. Diversity. 2015;7(3):242–269.

Helal siddiqui. Status of the major mangrove species in the Sundarbans of Bangladesh. Indian Journal of Forestry. 1999;22(3):197-202.

Biswas SR, Mallik AU, Choudhury JK, Nishat A. A unified framework for therestoration of Southeast Asian mangroves—bridging ecology, society and economics. Wetlands Ecol. Manage. 2009;17:365–383.

Feller IC, Friess DA, Krauss KW, Lewis RR. The state of the world’s mangrovesin the 21st century under climate change. Hydrobiologia. 2017;803:1–12.

Chowdhury MQ. et al. Nature and periodicity of growth rings in two Bangladeshi mangrove species. IAWA Journal. 2008;29(3):265–276.

Iftekhar MS, Saenger P. Vegetation dynamics in the BangladeshSundarbans mangroves: a review of forest inventories. Wetlands Ecology and Management. 2008;16(4):291–312.

Siddiqi NA. Mangrove forestry in Bangladesh, Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences, University of Chittagong, Chittagong, Bangladesh; 2001.

Mukhopadhyay A. et al. Changes in mangrove species assemblages and future prediction of the Bangladesh Sundarbans using Markov chain modeland cellular automata. Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts. 2015;17(6):1111–1117.

Islam S, Rahman M, Chakma S. Plant diversity and forest structureof the three protected areas (Wildlife Sanctuaries) of Bangladesh Sundarbans: Current Status and Management Strategies. In A. Latiff, I.Faridah-Hanum& M. Ozturk, Khalid Rehman Hakeem, eds. Mangrove Ecosystems of Asia. 2014;127–152.

Helal Siddiqui, Rahman MM. Major Mangrove species in the permanent sample plots of the sundarbans, proceedings of 9th global Business Research Conference 21- 22 December 2018 at Shangri-La Hotel, Kathmandu, Nepal; 2018. ISBN: 978-1-925488-67-8.

UNESCO. Sundarbans wildlife sanctuaries Bangladesh. World Heritage Nomination - IUCN Technical Evaluation. 1997;29.

Hussain Z, Acharya G. (Eds). Mangroves of the Sundarbans. Bangladesh. IUCN, Bangkok, Thailand. 1994;2:1–257.

Hoq ME. Sundarbans Mangrove: Fish and Fisheries Ecology, Resources, Productivity and Management Perspectives. Graphic Media, Dhaka, Bangladesh. 2008;1–271.

Gopal B, Chauhan M. Biodiversity and its conservation in the Sundarbans mangrove ecosystem. Aquatic sciences, Aquat. Sci. 2006;68(2006):338–354.
DOI 10.1007/s00027-006-0868-8

Chaudhuri AB, Choudhury A.. Mangroves of the Sundarbans. Volume 1: India. World Conservation Union, Gland. 1994;247.

Sarkar D, Chattopadhyay GN, Naskar KR. Nature and properties of coastal saline soils of Sundarbans with relation to mangrove vegetation. In: D. N. Guha Bakshi, P. Sanyal and K. R. Naskar (eds.),. Sundarbans Mangal. Naya Prokash, Calcutta. 1999;199–204.

Bhuiyan MR. Final Report on the Sundarbans Mangrove Soil, FAO/UNDP, BGD/84056, Khulna; 1994.

Chaudhury AB. Working plan of Sundarbans Forest Division for the period from 1960-61 to 1979-80, East Pakistan Govt. press, Dhaka. 1968;82.

Hassan MM. Soil and salinity of the Sundarbans in relation to top dying regeneration and survival of sundri, unpublished report. 1988;9.

Husch B, Miller CI, Beers TW. Forest mensuration. wiley. New York. 402 p. Islam M. ;, Sharmin A; Biswas ;, Dey T and Bachar BK et al., 2020. Utilization of Minor Forest Products of the Sundarbans in Bangladesh. Adv in Agri, Horti and Ento: AAHE-126; 1988.

Rahman MM. Development of nursery and plantation techniques of Aegiceras corniculatum(L.) Blanto and its site suitability in the Sundarban of Bangladesh. Bangladesh Res. Pub. J. 2016;12(1):50-59.

Rahman MM. Draft final report on study of Top dying of sundri (Heritiera fomes) and its Management in the Sundarbans, FWTD, KU; 2003.