Assessment of the Impacts of Climatic Factors and Economic Variables on Mangrove Ecosystem in Upenekang and Iwuochang, Southeastern Nigeria
Journal of Global Ecology and Environment, Volume 19, Issue 2,
The study assessed the impacts of climate change and economic variables on mangrove ecosystem in Upenekang and Iwuochang of Ibeno Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State in a bid to understand the extent at which this ecological zone had contributed to the socio-economic well-being of the rural dwellers as well as its effects on the immediate environment. 200 copies of questionnaires were administered to respondents in the study area who were farmers, fishermen, fish traders, fuel wood dealers, boat builders and many others. Climatic variables like water temperature, salinity, rainfall, air pressure, pH, and tidal elevation were determined across ten sampling points. Questionnaires as well as semi-structured interviews were employed for the study in order to test for the hypotheses sets out for the study. The data generated from field study was further processed using chi-square to ascertain whether there is significant effect of rainfall on mangrove productivity using multiple regressions. The results indicated that the computed F value of 0.873 is greater than the significant F value of 0.151 and this indicates that there is a significant effect of rainfall and climate variability on mangrove productivity in the study area. The result produces Pearson Chi-Square value of 275.673a, degree of freedom (df) of 24 and a P-value (2-sided) of 0.000 indicating that there is significant impact of mangrove on economic development in the study area.
How to Cite
Food and Agriculture Organization. Integrated coastal area management and agriculture, forestry and fisheries. Rome [FAO guideline]. Food and Agriculture Organization; 1998;32:28-46.
Field C. Restoration of mangrove ecosystems. Okinawa: International Society for mangrove ecosystems. 1996;1(8):17-27.
Spalding MD, Blasco F, Field CD. World mangrove atlas. Okinawa, Japan: The International Society for mangrove ecosystems. 1997;9(1):59-65.
Ukpong IE. Ecological classification of Nigerian mangroves using soil nutrient gradient analysis. Wetlands Ecol Manag. 2000;8(4):263-72.
Rönnbäck P. The ecological basis for economic value of seafood production supported by mangrove ecosystems. Ecol Econ. 1999;29(2):235-52.
Tjahjono REP, Lestari KG, Putri CS, Putri EI, SB, Adi RF et al. Defining indicators to measure risks of mangrove ecosystem in tropical region: case study Indonesia. InIOP Conference Series. IOP Conf Ser.: Earth Environ Sci. 2022;959(1): 012041);959(1).
Kumari K. An environmental and economic assessment of forest management options: A case study in Malaysia. Environment Department:Paper No. 26. Washington, DC: World Bank. 1995;19(5)23-35.
Iftekhar MS, Islam MR. Managing mangroves in Bangladesh: A strategy analysis. J Coast Conserv. 2004;10(1): 1391-46.
Alongi DM. Present state and future of the world’s mangrove forests. Environ Conserv. 2002;29(3):331-49.
Baloloy AB, Martinez KP, Blanco AC, Neri MEP, Di V, Burgos DF, et al. Mapping multi-decadal mangrove forest change in the Philippines: vegetation extent and impacts of anthropogenic and climate-related factors. In: InClimate change strategies: handling the challenges of adapting to a changing climate. Cham: Springer Nature Switzerland. 2023;217-48.
Ball MC. Interactive effects of salinity and irradiance on growth: Implications for mangrove forest structure along salinity gradients. Trees. 2002;16(2-3):126-39.
Duarte CM, Cebrián J. The fate of marine autotrophic production. Limnol Oceanogr. 1996;41(8):1758-66.
Duke NC. Mangrove floristics and biogeography. In: Robertson AI, Alongi DM, editors. Tropical mangrove ecosystems. Washington, DC: American Geophysical Union. 1992;3:63-100.
Hong P. Effects of mangrove restoration and conservation on the biodiversity and environment in Can Gio District. In: Vannucci M, editor. Mangrove management and conservation: Present and future. Tokyo: United Nations University Press; 2004;32:67-71.
Das P, Basak UC, Das AB. Restoration of the mangrove vegetation in the Mahanadi delta, Orissa, India. Mangroves Salt Marshes. 1997;1(3):155-61.
Uduak A. Socio-economic impact of wetlands farming in IbionoIbom LGA, Akwa Ibom State. Geogr Nat Resour. 2016; 1(6):101–12.
Hay ME, Parker JD, Burkepile DE, Caudill CC, Wilson AE, Hallinan ZP et al. Mutualisms and aquatic community structure: the enemy of my enemy is my friend. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst. 2004; 35(1):175-97.
Hogarth P. The biology of mangroves. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1999; 65:123-53.
Masoud T, Wild R. Sustainable use and conservation management of mangroves in Zanzibar, Tanzania. In: Vannucci M, editor. Mangrove management and conservation: present and future. Tokyo: United Nations University Press. 2004;42(3):99-105.
Umoh GO. Why Mrs X Die? reflections on wetlands agriculture development in Nigeria. The 50th Inaugural Lecture of the University of Uyo. 27th October, 2016 using LANDSAT images. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science. 2016;49(1):37-44.
Lal P. Conservation or conversion of mangroves in Fiji. Occas Pap. 1990; 40(6):101-117;11.
Mazda Y, Kobashi D, Okada S. Tidal-scale hydrodynamics within mangrove swamps. Wetlands Ecol Manage. 2005;13(6):647-55.
McManus P. Mangrove Battlelines: Culture/ nature and ecological restoration. Aust Geogr. 2006;37(1):57-71.
Ubulom SR, Okwet JY, Ubong EA. Evaluating the distributions and impacts of macroplastic pollutants in Agansa coastal community, South Eastern Nigeria. Journal of Global ecology and environment. 2023; 18:32-45.
Bour A, Haarr A, Keiter S, Hylland K. Environmentally relevant microplastic exposure affects sediment-dwelling bivalves. Environ Pollut. 2018;236:652-60.
McKee KL, Faulkner PL. Restoration of biogeochemical function in mangrove forests. Restor Ecol. 2000;8(3):247-59.
Ukpong IE. Gradient analysis in mangrove swamp forests. Trop Ecol. 2015;41(1):25-32.
Ramírez G, P, López J B. and D. Mangrove vegetation assessment in the Santiago River Mouth, Mexico, by means of supervised classification using LandsatTM imagery. Forest Ecol Manag. 1998;105(1-3):217-29.
Ebierikpe P. Environmental impact of petroleum exploitation in Ibeno LGA. Geogr Nat Resour. 2016;2(5):55–65.
Gall SC, Thompson RC. The impact of debris on marine life. Mar Pollut Bull. 2015;92(1-2):170-9.
Fromard F, Puig H, Mougin E, Marty G, Betoulle JL, Cadamuro L. Structure, above-ground biomass and dynamics of mangrove ecosystems: new data from French Guiana. Oecologia. 1998;115(1-2):39-53.
Allen S, Allen D, Phoenix VR, Le Roux G, Durántez Jiménez P, Simonneau A, et al. Atmospheric transport and deposition of microplastics in a remote mountain catchment. Nat Geosci. 2019;12(5):339-44.
AboEl-Nil MM. Growth and establishment of mangrove (Avicennia marina) on the coastlines of Kuwait. Wetlands Ecol Manag. 2001;9(5):421-28.
Akpabio E. Socioeconomic and environmental impact of road network in Ukana clan, Essien Udim LGA, Akwa Ibom State. Geogr Nat Resour. 2016;6(4): 39-46.
Blasco F, Aizpuru M, Gers C. Depletion of the mangroves of Continental Asia. Wetlands Ecol Manag. 2001;9(3):245-56.
Aaron E. Socio-economic impact of beach tourism in Ibeno, Ibeno LGA. Geogr Nat Resour. 2016;5(2):35–65.
Clough F, Tan T, Buu D, Phuong D. Mangrove forest structure and growth. In: Clough B, editor. Mixed shrimp farming–mangrove forestry models in the Mekong Delta, Termination report, Part B: technical appendices. 1999;102:223-40.
Crona BI, Rönnbäck P. Use of replanted mangroves as nursery grounds by shrimp communities in Gazi Bay, Kenya. Estuarine Coast Shelf Sci. 2005;65(3):535-44.
Duke NC. Genetic diversity, distributional barriers and rafting continents – more thoughts on the Reforested mangrove areas Iftekhar. International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management evolution of mangroves. Hydrobiologia. 1995;295(1-3):167-81.
Field C. Rationales and practices of mangrove afforestation. Mar Freshw Res. 1998;49(4):1998b.
Iftekhar M, Takama T. Perceptions of biodiversity, environmental services and conservation of planted mangroves: A case study on NijhumDwip Island, Bangladesh. Wetlands Ecol Manag. 2007;2007: 34-9.
Isikong S. Environmental impact of sand mining in Oron LGA, Akwa Ibom State. Geogr Nat Resour. 2(10):75–89. 2015.
Abstract View: 25 times
PDF Download: 3 times