A water sample from Calabar River port terminals was evaluated with the aim of determining physicochemical parameters and seasonal distribution of phytoplankton. Water samples were collected from three stations. Samples were subjected to standard procedure for determining physicochemical parameters. Phytoplankton was filtered using plankton net with 55µ mesh size and identified using keys from literature. Result showed significant variations (p<0.05) in some parameters (Dissolved Oxygen, Electrical Conductivity, Salinity, Nitrate, Nitrite and Phosphate) while no significant variations (p>0.05) was observed in others (pH, Total dissolved solid, Ammonium, Phosphate and turbidity). A total of 54 of phytoplankton individuals was identified in the water sample comprising of 4 classes, this include Bacillariophyceae (56.4%) Chlorophceae (19.6%), Xanthophyceae (14.5%) Cyanophyceae (7.4%) and Euglenodea (2.0%). There was a significant difference (p<0.05) in the seasonal distribution of plankton between the wet (71.9%) and dry season (28.10). The study suggests a continuous audit of water in the river to ensure stability in the ecosystem.
The study was conducted in 2019-20 to investigate the vegetation structure of Kokarai valley, district Swat. Sum of 155 vascular plant species which belongs to 74 families was recorded. The dominant family was Asteraceae (16) followed by Rosaceae (13) and Lamiaceae (12). The life form was dominated by Therophytes with 61 species and leaf spectra by microphyll with 73 species. Two way indicator species analysis sorted out the vegetation of 15 stands in five plant communities i.e. (1) Viburnum, Fragaria, Galium community (2) Quercus, Quercus, Nepeta community (3) Indigofera, Fragaria, Pinus community (4) Olea, Quercus, Melia community (5) Bromus, Dedonaea, Micromeria community. The canonical correspondence analysis indicated that the total variation in the species data was 4.12 with 87.1% explanatory variables. CCA ordination indicates that some of the species were more sensitive to environmental variables. This study would be helpful and provide baseline knowledge about the ecological and conservation status of the threatened species in their respective stands and stands having similar habitats in the adjacent areas.
To understand the effect of anthropogenic disturbances, mainly related to insecticide treatment on ant community structure, the present study was conducted on Cameroonian cocoa farms during two consecutive crop cycles. Ant sampling was based on chemical knock down in three smallholding cocoa farms selected in three different agro-ecological zones in the Centre Region of Cameroon. The C-score was used for null model analysis in order to detect deterministic factor of ant community structure and Spearman correlation test to screen relationship between pair species. Seven ant species were identified as a numerically dominant: Crematogaster clariventris, Crematogaster gabonensis, Crematogaster striatula, Camponotus vividus, Cataulacus guineensis, Tetramorium aculeatum and Oecophylla longinoda. Ant communities were structured by the competition and negative relationship were found between dominant species. Insecticide-treatments affected the ant community structure by favoring the acquisition of the dominant status by non-dominant species.
Cardiospermum halicacabum belongs to the family Sapindaceae is commonly known as Balloon vine in English. It is an annual or perennial herbaceous climber, widely distributed in tropical and subtropical forests of Asia and Africa. Balloon vine plant is enriched with various phytoconstituents like flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids, tannins, proanthocyanidin, apigenin, phytosterols, triterpenes, sterols, reducing sugar, apigenin-7-O-glucuronide, 80 luteolin-7-O-glucuronide, β-Arachidonic acid, chrysoberyl-O-Glucuronide, β-D-glycoside, β-sitosterol, and Rutinis (rutinose and quercetin). This herb has various medicinal properties. Cardiospermum halicacabum is widely utilized by traditional practitioners for the treatment or prevention of numerous ailments such as snake bite, nervous disease, stiffness of limbs, and rheumatism. Stalks and leaves are used in the treatment of dysentery, headache, and diarrhoea. It also acts as an emetic, laxative, stomachic, diuretic, diaphoretic and sudorific. Cardiospermum halicacabum plant is reported to have antidiabetic, anticancer, antibacterial, anticonvulsant, antiulcer, mosquito repellent, antiarthritic, anxiolytic, ant-filarial, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective activity. The present review focuses on the Phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of Cardiospermum halicacabum.
Rapid industrialization and technological advances made a huge change in the infrastructure setups and construction model. On the one hand, there is an urgent need for transformation and upgrading in some places with high levels of urbanization, while land resources are exceedingly scarce. The urban environment, on the other hand, is overburdened. The human settlement environment is relatively high, and the construction land used for urban redevelopment has hidden environmental dangers influences. Soil contamination may be more harmful to human health, and it has become one of the most visible flaws in the development of a prosperous society. Many countries have developed legislation and governance mechanisms to address issues related to the quality of building land, including pollution of construction land. This study summarizes the research state of domestic and foreign policies and technology in the treatment of land-use pollution.