Original Research Article

ACUTE TOXICITY AND SUBLETHAL EFFECT OF CARBARYL ON BIOCHEMICAL RESPONSES OF INDIAN EARTHWORM Lampito mauritii (KINBERG)

V. KAVITHA, R. ANANDHAN, R. BALASUBRAMANIAN

Journal of Global Ecology and Environment, Volume 13, Issue 4, Page 1-11

Application of many numbers of insecticides in the agricultural field has also threatened the soil beneficial organisms. Earthworms are one of the major soil biota. Carbaryl was commonly used insecticides against various insects in South India. Hence in present study was aimed to estimate acute toxicity and sublethal effect of carbaryl on biochemical responses of the L. mauritii. For acute toxicity study, mortality of earthworms was noted on 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h after exposure to various carbaryl concentrations. From the study, sublethal concentrations of carbaryl (T1- 4.195 ppm and T2-13.984 ppm) was selected and estimated activities of following enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-s-transferase (GST) and acetyl cholinesterase (AChE). The lipid peroxides (LP) and glutathione levels (GSH) were also determined. The GSH, SOD, CAT, GST and AChE activities decreased than the control upto 15 days, thereafter slightly increased on the day 30. High level of LP and GSH were observed until 15 days and on 30th day they were decreased. The results suggested that carbaryl highly inhibited the normal biochemical responses of earthworm upto 15 days due to the presence of carbaryl residues in the soil substrate as well as body of earthworm. By the microbial  degradation of carbaryl, recovery was observed on  the 30th day of experiment.

Original Research Article

DIVERSITY OF WILD EDIBLE FRUIT BEARING WOODY SPECIES IN DIFFERENT LAND USE AND MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN DANGUR DISTRICT, NORTH WESTERN ETHIOPIA

GORAW BELETE, ZEBENE ASFAW, TESHOME TAMIRAT

Journal of Global Ecology and Environment, Volume 13, Issue 4, Page 12-22

Wild edible fruit bearing woody species are widely used as supplementary food stuff and traditional medicinal plants in rural community of Ethiopia. However, the diversity of wild edible fruit bearing tree species is highly threatened due to deforestation, forest degradation, lack of management and population pressure. They are becoming a focus of research topics for many ethno botanists in recent decades to enhance their sustainable use and conservation. Adequate study on wild edible fruit bearing woody species has not been conducted in most parts of Ethiopian Forests. This study was conducted to analyze the diversity of wild edible fruit bearing woody species under different land use types and management system in dangur rural district, North West Ethiopia. Two types of land uses were used for data collection following the transect lines. A systematic sampling method was applied to locate the sample plots on transects to study the diversity wild edible fruit bearing woody species. For wood land use type a plot size of 20 m × 20 m were used to record all edible wild fruit bearing woody species, while plot size of 50 m × 100 m was used for parkland agroforestry. A total of 144 plots were used for collection of data for species diversity in park land agroforestry and woodland land use types. Result showed that a total of 34 wild edible fruit bearing woody species were recorded from parkland agroforestry and woodland land use types. The diversity measures of Shannon, richness and evenness 2.03±0.12, 8.83±1.0 and 0.89±0.01 for parkland agroforestry and 2.49±0.1, 15.16±1.49 and 0.82±0.02 for wood land use type were analyzed respectively. The most frequently retained species include Syzygium guineense, Ziziphus mauritiana. Ficus sur and Ficus sycomorus, Carissa spinarum, Balanites aegyptiaca and Gardenia ternifolia. Wild edible fruit bearing woody species are used for traditional medicine and supplemental food source in which the diversity is highly threatened due to deforestation and lack of proper management. Hence, conservation strategy is required both land use types in order to sustainably management the plant species.  Findings of our study concluded that conservation and utilization strategy of wild edible fruit bearing woody species are important to maximize their economic, social and environmental benefits and apply appropriate management practices.

Original Research Article

USE OF ALKYL POLYGLYCOSIDES IN THE REMEDIATION OF HEAVY METALS FROM HYDROCARBON CONTAMINATED SOILS

C. E. EZEKIEL, LEO C. OSUJI, M. C. ONOJAKE

Journal of Global Ecology and Environment, Volume 13, Issue 4, Page 23-34

Heavy metal contamination of soil is a global issue because of the accumulation of these compounds in the environment, endangering human health, plants, and animals. This research investigated surfactant enhanced remediation of heavy metals such as of Fe, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cr, and Cu in hydrocarbon contaminated soil samples from Eneka, Ozuoba and Rukpokwu. The soil samples were contaminated with medium and light crude oil, and the concentrations of heavy metals were analysed with Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Results obtained from the medium crude contaminated soil samples before remediation showed: Cu: 5.82mg/kg, Fe:11897.00 mgkg-1, Zn :129.00 mgkg-1, Pb: 6.80 mgkg-1, Ni:11.60 mgkg-1, Cr: 20.70 mgkg-1 for soil samples from Eneka. The metal concentrations were reduced to 3.80 mgkg-1, 2013.00 mgkg-1, 29.40 mgkg-1, < 0.012 mgkg-1, <0.008 mgkg-1, and <0.005 mgkg-1 respectively after remediation. The results of the soil samples from Ozuoba were: Cu: 3.04 mgkg-1, Fe: 7197.00 mgkg-1, Zn: 51.80 mgkg-1, Pb: 3.10 mgkg-1, Ni: 11.90 mgkg-1, Cr: 37.90 mgkg-1 before remediation. The concentrations of the metals were reduced to 1.27 mgkg-1, 2017.00 mgkg-1, 19.40 mgkg-1, 0.012 mgkg-1, <0.008 mgkg-1 and < 0.005 mgkg-1 respectively after remediation. The results of soil samples from Rukpokwu were: Cu: 3.56 mgkg-1, Fe: 4188.00 mgkg-1, Zn: 111.00 mgkg-1, Pb: 1.04 mgkg-1, Ni: 9.50 mgkg-1, Cr: 34.50 mgkg-1 before remediation. The concentrations of the heavy metals were reduced to 1.57 mgkg-1, 2034.00 mgkg-1, 16.00 mgkg-1, <0.012 mgkg-1, <0.008 mgkg-1 and <0.005 mgkg-1 respectively after remediation. The soil samples contaminated with light crude showed the following results before remediation; Cu: 5.04 mgkg-1, Fe: 10495.00 mgkg-1, Zn: 97.50 mgkg-1, Pb: 4.70 mgkg-1, Ni: 8.44 mgkg-1, Cr: 19.00 mgkg-1 for Eneka:. The concentrations of the metals were reduced to 2.86 mgkg-1, 2080.00 mgkg-1, 27.20 mgkg-1, <0.012 mgkg-1, <0.008 mgkg-1 and <0.005 mgkg-1 after remediation. The results of soil samples from Ozuoba are as follows: Cu:1.13 mgkg-1, Fe: 5504.00 mgkg-1, Zn:43.00 mgkg-1, Pb: 2.70 mgkg-1, Ni: 12.10 mgkg-1, Cr: 17.20 mgkg-1 before remediation. The concentrations were reduced to 0.21 mgkg-1, 1909.00 mgkg-1, 12.20 mgkg-1, <0.012 mgkg-1, <0.008 mgkg-1 and <0.005 mgkg-1 after remediation. The soil samples from Rukpokwu showed the following results before remediation: Cu: 2.43 mgkg-1, Fe: 4572.00 mgkg-1, Zn: 65.30 mgkg-1, Pb: 0.86 mgkg-1, Ni 13.70 mgkg-1, Cr: 20.70 mgkg-1. These concentrations were reduced to 0.26 mgkg-1, 1841.00 mgkg-1, 15.30 mgkg-1, <0.012 mgkg-1, <0.008 mgkg-1, and <0.005 mgkg-1 after remediation. The results of this study showed that the concentrations of Pb, Ni, and Cr were removed to below the detection limit of the equipment. Fe and Zn showed a very high degree of success, achieving a 60% to 83% reduction in all soil. The removal of Cu from the Eneka sample showed the least removal tendency of 33.51% in medium crude contaminated soil and 43.25% in light crude contaminated soil. The use of alkyl polyglucoside surfactant enhanced the solubilisation and surfactant-metal complexation, resulting in the removal of these heavy metals from hydrocarbon contaminated soils.

Original Research Article

FORAGE BIOMASS YIELD PERFORMANCE OF RHODES GRASS (Chloris gayana) ACCESSIONS IN BENISHNGUL-GUMUZ REGION OF WESTERN ETHIOPIA

MULISA FAJI, ALEMEYEHU ABEBE, KEDIJA AHMED

Journal of Global Ecology and Environment, Volume 13, Issue 4, Page 35-41

The experiment was conducted at Kamashi and Assosa forage research stations of Assosa Agricultural Research Center to evaluate the forage yield performance of five chloris gayana accessions under low and mid-altitude agro-ecologies. Kamashi and Assosa were representing low and mid-altitude agro-ecologies respectively. The study was conducted in randomized complete block design with three replications. Plant height at forage harvesting, days to forage harvest, forage dry matter yield, and leaf to stem ratio were significantly (P < 0.001) different among the testing agro-ecologies. The highest plant height at forage harvesting and forage dry matter yield was obtained from Kamashi and leaf to stem ratio from Assosa testing environment. Genotype was significantly (P < 0.001) affected plant height, days to forage harvest, and leaf to stem ratio. Plant height was significantly (P < 0.05) affected by the interaction of genotype and environment. The result of a combined analysis indicated that the days to forage harvest was significantly (P < 0.001) affected by genotype. While days to forage harvest was significantly (P < 0.001) different among the tested genotypes at both testing environment and C. gayana cv., massaba, was early maturing than the others tested Chloris gyana accessions at both locations. In conclusion the plant height, dry matter yield, leaf to stem ratio and days to maturity of C. gayana is affected by agro-ecology.

Original Research Article

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF OUED MEBOUDJA (ANNABA)

SAMAI IBTISSEM, REMITA FERIEL, CHALANE FATIHA, BEKKOUCHE ASSIA

Journal of Global Ecology and Environment, Volume 13, Issue 4, Page 42-54

Water pollution is a concept that is constantly evolving. It constitutes today a real threat for the environment and of course for the health of the man. The objective of this study is to evaluate the quality of surface waters of oued Meboudja (Annaba- Algeria) and to characterize the different types of pollution while the composition of water plays an important role in determining its quality. As objective, this work consists at the beginning to realize a monthly follow-up in three sites (S1, S2, S3) of sampling in all the length of the Oued Meboudja (upstream, center and downstream), during the period of January to December 2020, with a complete analysis of the physicochemical parameters such as (Temperature, potential hydrogen, Electric Conductivity, biochemical oxygen demand, Dissolved oxygen, Nitrite, Nitrate, Chloride, Ammonium, Suspended solid, Sodium, fatty oils, turbidity).

The results showed in the three sites (S1 upstream, S2 center, S3 downstream) that temperature ranged between 11°C and 18°C. Means of pH ranged between 7 and 9. Conductivity in our finding raged between about 1064 to 2300 µs/cm. Biochemical oxygen demand ranged between about 9.30 and 13.30 mg/l. Dissolved oxygen also balanced between 1.50 and 2.03 mg O2/l. Nitrite in this study ranged between 1.50 and 2.02 mg/l. Nitrate ranged between about 41 to 52 mg/l. Chloride ranged between 71 to 81 mg/l. Ammonium through the year ranged between 1.66 to 2.30 mg/l. Suspended matter ranged between 153 to 190 mg/l. Sodium ranged between 6 to 6.60 mg/l. fatty oils ranged between 95 to 115 mg/l. Finally turbidity ranged between 8 to 16 NTU. The highest means were observed in the summer (especially in August) of all parameters but the turbidity which augmented significantly in the winter (December to January). Waters of Oued Meboudja are loaded by various pollutants of several origins namely: industrial, chemical and also agro-food.

Original Research Article

MORPHO-PHYSIOLOGICAL AND VINE DEVELOPMENT, FLOWERING AND SEX EXPRESSION OF WATERMELON PLANTS GROWN IN WINTER SEASON UNDER LOW-TECH GREENHOUSE

M. A. AWAL, P. C. DHAR

Journal of Global Ecology and Environment, Volume 13, Issue 4, Page 55-67

Although a few works have been conducted on low-tech greenhouse (LTG) for growing horticultural crops in Bangladesh but the cultivation of watermelon in winter season is unexplored. Therefore a study was conducted from late autumn to winter season of 2015/2016 to evaluate the production potentials of four varieties of watermelon viz. Sonya, Black Dorin, Badsha and Dragon. Three LTGs each represents a replication were erected where four pits were prepared under each LTG and four watermelon varieties were separately grown in separate pits. The variation in temperature between the LTG and those at outside was observed larger at around middle of the day and maximum variations were noticed in air and soil temperatures as much as 9 and 2oC, respectively around the noon time. Phenological development like days to first leaf, first vine and first male flower appearance was hastened due to high temperature by 2, 9 and 8 days, respectively. Vine growth in terms of number and length of vine, vine diameter, node number and internode length, leaf size etc. was found significantly greater in the plants grown with LTG than that found in the plants grown outside. Low-tech plants produced thinner leaves (i.e. higher specific leaf area) than that at outside indicate that leaf lamina expanded rapidly under high temperature. The higher vine growth under LTG can be ascribed due to the higher photosynthetic and transpiration rates as much as 3.5-fold (than that at outside) as favoured by high temperature. However, such excessive vine growth under LTG seriously hampered the development of female flower although a plenty of male flower production was observed. Thus it is concluded that watermelon fruit cannot be produced in winter (off-season) by using low-tech greenhouse without taking the other scientific measures for blooming the female flowers.   

Original Research Article

EVALUATION OF WASTEWATER EFFLUENTS QUALITY FROM INTAFACT BEVERAGES LIMITED IN EASTERN NIGERIA

C. C. EZEMBA, O. C. OKONKWO, E. N. CHUKWURA

Journal of Global Ecology and Environment, Volume 13, Issue 4, Page 68-77

The brewing industry is a booming industry in Nigeria that generates employment and revenues for the citizens and the government. Amount of beers consumed by the populace is quite large, which has led to year on production of beers and subsequent production of effluents from breweries. Proper effluent management is an integral part of an efficient production company. This research aimed at accessing brewery effluent quality using APHA standard method for the analysis of the water samples and the results obtained were compared with the Federal Environmental Protection Agency/ Ministry of Environment, 1991,(FEPA) and Federal Ministry of Environment 1999 (FMENV)., Limits showed that most of the results were within the recommended standard guideline except for some parameters with values that are either higher or lower than the set limits. The objectives were to: conduct the physico-chemical parameters of the waste water samples and to determine the elemental analysis using Agilent 720 ICP-OES. The physico-chemical evaluation showed that the effluent had a mean conductivity value of 50.9±1.05 (us/cm), turbidity value of 48.6±0.15 NTD, chloride value of 85.00±0.05 mg/l, salinity of 1.55±0.01 mg/l, BOD of 124 mg/l, total solid of 584.04±0.02 mg/l, total suspended solids of 158.04±0.02 mg/l, sulphate value of 131.27±0.01 mg/l, protein of 2.8 %, calcium hardness of 260.00±0.01, magnesium of 19.5 as well as the presence of  heavy metals such as Arsenic, Iron, Cobalt, Chromium, Lead, Mercury and Cadmium. These effluent waste water adversely impacts humans when they get into the food chain so strict measures have to be set up to ensure standard effluent treatment plants and regulations. Moreso, enforcement of these regulation duelly enforced.

Original Research Article

SINGLE AND COMBINATORIAL ATTENUATING POTENTIALS OF PHYTO-EMULSIFIED AND NON-IONIC SURFACTANTS ON CRUDE OIL IMPACTED SOIL

K. T. NWAUCHE, E. P. BEREZI, A. I. UGOH

Journal of Global Ecology and Environment, Volume 13, Issue 4, Page 78-89

This study investigated the Single And Combinatorial Attenuating Potentials Of Phyto-Emulsified and Non-Ionic Surfactants on Crude Oil Impacted Soil. Crude oil highly impacted soil excavated from an oil spill site at Obeche community in Ogba/Egbema/Ndoni Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria was used. Attenuation was induced using phyto-emulsified surfactant (Costus afer stem) and chemical surfactant (Triton x-100). The pH value of polluted soil sample (Cell A) was observed to be increased (6.81± 0.52) when compared with other cells that were amended. A significant reduction was observed in cell D (5.80 ± 0.00) amended with Costus afer + Triton x-100. The result of the soil electrical conductivity shows a significant difference (P≤ 0.05) when cell A is compared with other cells. Only cell C amended with 3ml of Triton x-100 had a lower value of 31.67 ± 1.52 when compared with cell A (polluted soil sample) (76.67 ± 1.52). All the other cells had higher values of 339.67 ± 5.50,   233.67 ± 4.04 and 134. 67 ± 2.51 respectively when compared with cell A (76.67 ± 1.52). After 60 days of incubation with the amendments used, only cell B amended with 200g of Costus afer had no significant difference (p≤ 0.05) when compared with cell A for total organic carbon (%) content were as others did. The same trend was observed for the total nitrogen (%) content where all the cells except cell B was significantly different (p≤ 0.05) when compared with cell A. Cells C and D had higher values of 0.32 ± 0.00 and 0.26 ± 0.07 respectively. For PO43- (mg/kg) and NO-3 (mg/kg) all the cells were significantly different (p≤ 0.05) and there was a recognized reduction in their values when compared with the control sample (Cell A). Organic Sulphur (mg/kg) value reduced exponentially but not significantly in all the cells (0.10 ± 0.00) when compared with the control cell (A) (15.00 ± 0.00). A significant difference (p≤ 0.05) when cell A is compared with the other cells was observed for the total PAH (mg/kg) concentration and all the other cells amended had a decrease in their total PAH (mg/kg) concentration with cell D having the highest reduction (1.77 ± 0.02) followed by cell B (4.74 ± 0.02) and cell C (5.97 ± 0.55) when compared with the control sample i.e cell A which has the value of 6.85 ± 0.01. All the cells amended were significantly different (p≤ 0.05) except for cell C (CISS + 3ml Triton x-100) for the TPH (mg/kg) and THC (mg/kg) concentration when compared with the control sample (cell A). All the cells amended had reduction in their TPH (mg/kg) and THC (mg/kg) concentration with the same reduction pattern observed with total PAH (mg/kg) concentration also observed here. In all the heavy metals quantified, there is a significant difference at p≤ 0.05 when all the amended cells (B to D) are compared with the control cell (A). For Pb (mg/kg), the concentration of all the cells amended significantly decreased with cell C (CISS + Triton x-100) having the lowest concentration of 1.52 ± 0.02 when compared with the control cell (11.31 ± 0.15). For Cu, Cd and Ni, (mg/kg) all the amended cells were seen to be reduced in their concentrations when compared with the concentration of the control sample. For Mn, the concentrations of the amended cells were seen to be high when compared with the concentration of the control sample. These results indicates that amendment with Costus afer stem alone and in combination with Triton x-100 proved to be very efficient materials in the cleanup of crude oil polluted soil.

Original Research Article

EFFECT OF VINE CLIPPING ON FLOWERING AND SEX EXPRESSION IN WATERMELON PLANT DURING WINTER SEASON WITH AMBIENT AND ELEVATED TEMPERATURE BY LOW-TECH GREENHOUSE

P. C. DHAR, M. A. AWAL

Journal of Global Ecology and Environment, Volume 13, Issue 4, Page 90-101

Although watermelon fruits have year-round demand to the all classes and ages people in Bangladesh but its cultivation is mostly concentrated to the summer season. Previously we failed to cultivate the watermelon in winter season by elevating temperature using low-tech greenhouse where fruit production was mostly limited due to the poor initiation of female flower. It is thought that apical dominance is responsible under warmer low-tech that’s why excessive vine growth was occurred along with poor initiation of pistillate flower. Therefore the present study was carried out in 2016/2017 autumn and winter season in the Department of Crop Botany, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh 2202, Bangladesh to investigate whether the vine clipping could facilitate the female flowering along with fruit setting through reducing the effect of apical dominance in growing watermelon plants. Four varieties of watermelon viz. Sonya, Black Dorin, Badsha and Dragon were grown both in low-tech and that at outside. Both low-tech plants and that grown at outside were treated with (i) no vine clipped (control), (ii) mother vine clipped following the emergence of fourth primary vine, and (iii) all primary vines regularly clipped allowing mother or cotyledonary vine only. Air and soil temperatures increased inside the low-tech than that at outside which significantly hastened all the phenophase events like days to appearance of first vine, first leaf, and first male and first female flowers, and first physiological maturity of fruit. Results showed that initiation of female flowering in low-tech watermelon plants slightly improved when primary vines were clipped allowing mother vine only, and there was no effect on female flowering when mother vine was clipped. Consequently, vine clipping treatments did not significantly improve fruit setting and yield in watermelon plants. Therefore, investigation using plant growth regulators is suggested for exploring watermelon cultivation using low-tech greenhouse during winter season in Bangladesh.

Original Research Article

BIODEGRADATION OF CRUDE OIL BY HYDROCARBON DEGRADING BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM CONTAMINATED SOIL SAMPLES IN SELECTED TANK FARM AREAS IN APATA, IBADAN

OJO, TOLULOPE AYOMIDE, UWANTA, LAWRENCE IFEANYI, EZEOKOLI, CHUKWUEBUKA MARYVIN, OKOYE, PRISCA AMALA, EZEMBA, CONSTANCE CHINYERE

Journal of Global Ecology and Environment, Volume 13, Issue 4, Page 102-109

The continuous and indiscriminate discharge of crude and/or refined oils during the various processing and transportation of oils leads to the contamination of the environment. This study was aimed at determining the bacterial diversity of contaminated soils around tank farm areas and the changes that occur in the oil hydrocarbon components during the process of biodegradation by the selected bacterial species. Contaminated soil samples were collected around different tank farm areas based on their petroleum contents at the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) depot, Apata, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. The total heterotrophic bacterial count ranged from 1.04 × 107 to 2.73 × 107 cfu/ml in the various contaminated soil samples. The hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria count ranged from 1.9 × 103 to 7.3 × 103 cfu/ml in the contaminated soil samples. Among the 28 bacterial isolates capable of utilizing crude oil vapour, two isolates thrived on the highest crude oil concentration employed during screening and were used singly and in a mixed culture for the biodegradation of the contaminated soil samples. The two hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria isolates were characterized and identified as Pseudomonas species (AG13) and Bacillus species (PM4). The percentage degradation of the aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in the contaminated soil samples after 8 weeks was highest in the Pseudomonas species (AG13) treated sample with 71.51% and 63.30% respectively and this was followed closely by the mixture of both bacteria isolates with 67.14% and 50.69% respectively and Bacillus species (PM4) having the lowest with 31.92% and 19.03% respectively. Therefore, hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria species can be employed in the removal of oil pollutants from the soil, but a careful selection is required to ensure effectiveness.

Original Research Article

EFFECT OF PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS ON FEMALE FLOWER DEVELOPMENT AND PRODUCTIVITY OF WATERMELON PLANTS GROWN DURING WINTER SEASON WITH LOW-TECH GREENHOUSE

P. C. DHAR, M. A. AWAL

Journal of Global Ecology and Environment, Volume 13, Issue 4, Page 110-121

Temperature generally falls below the threshold limit of the watermelon plants during the winter which is a prime hindrance to cultivate it in this season in Bangladesh. Although low-tech greenhouse which made of bamboo or wooden structure and polyethylene film as a cladding material significantly increases temperature, but watermelon plants grown under low-tech could not initiate pistillate flowers rather than sufficient vegetative and male flower development were observed. The present study was carried out under the low-tech greenhouse from middle of October 2017 to middle of February 2018 in the Field Laboratory, Department of Crop Botany, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh 2202, Bangladesh to investigate whether the some plant growth regulators (PGRs) like ‘ethephon’ and ‘flora’ could develop the female flowers and fruit setting with fruit yield in four varieties of watermelon viz. Sonya, Black Dorin, Badsha and Dragon. The watermelon plants grown both in low-tech plants and that at outside were treated (sprayed) at earlier development stages with (i) no PGR (control), (ii) Flora, and (iii) Ethephon. Air and soil temperatures increased inside the low-tech than that aside outside which significantly hastened all the phenophase events like appearance of first vine, leaf, male and female flowers. Both the PGRs exerted the positive effect on the female flower development and fruit setting as well as yield components and fruit yield. However, the effect of ethephon was found as satisfactory. Therefore, it is concluded that spraying of ethephon at earlier growth stages could offer satisfactory fruit yield of watermelon under low-tech greenhouse during winter season in Bangladesh. The output is a combine effect where low-tech offers warmer microclimate for sufficient vine growth and development, and ethephon induces female flowering leading to get satisfactory fruit yield.

Original Research Article

PHYTOKINETIC OF WATER HYACINTH (Eichhornia crassipes) TREATED CRUDE OIL-CONTAMINATED WASTEWATER

FELIX AIBUEDEFE AISIEN, BLESSING ENOGIERU, EKI TINA AISIEN

Journal of Global Ecology and Environment, Volume 13, Issue 4, Page 122-132

The activities of crude oil exploration and production have led to severe contamination of the soil and water environment in the Niger-Delta area of Nigeria. This study aimed to investigate the efficiency of pollutant removal and phytokinetic of crude oil-contaminated wastewater (COCW) using water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes). Crude oil-contaminated wastewater was treated for 6 weeks. The tested samples were collected weekly for physicochemical analysis, and the control sample was analysed at the beginning and end of the study. The following parameters were analysed, biological oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), dissolved oxygen (DO), total petroleum hydrocarbon (THC), lead (Pb2+), iron (Fe2+), total suspected solids (TSS), and total dissolved solids (TDS) using American Public Health Association (APHA) standard methods.

The results showed that, the percentage reduction ranged from 87.8% for COD to 99.1% for Fe2+, while the percentage improvement was 14.7% for pH and 96.6% for DO. Also, the maximum percentage reduction in BOD5, COD, THC, Fe, and Pb was 86.3%, 87.8%, 93.9%, 99.1%, and 88%, respectively. The first-order kinetic model best fit the experimental data, and R2 ranged from 0.97 to 0.99. Besides, the kinetic rate k of COD, BOD5, Fe, Pb, and THC reduction ranged from 0.03 wk-1 to 0.89 wk-1, and the order is Fe2+>BOD5>Pb>THC>COD. The water quality parameters of the treated COCW after 6 weeks of phytoremediation were within or below the acceptable water quality standards for discharged effluent specified by WHO, 2006 and NESREA as maximum permissible limits. The water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) has excellent potential in remediating crude oil-contaminated wastewater. The first-order kinetic model gave a good fit and adequately described the kinetics of pollutants removal for the phytoremediation process.

Original Research Article

BIOINDICATOR BASED WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF WARBO AND DABO STREAMS IN AWASH CATCHMENT, DENDI WOREDA, ETHIOIPA

P. SEKHAR

Journal of Global Ecology and Environment, Volume 13, Issue 4, Page 133-143

The increasing impact of human activities on the freshwater bodies of Ethiopia calls for efficient and cost-effective method for water quality and ecological health assessment. In Ethiopia, river water quality monitoring totally depends on conventional method using physicochemical analysis for streams and rivers. Increasing anthropogenic pressure on water bodies-initiated researchers to develop holistic water quality assessment methods for the country. So the present study was aimed at assessing the water quality of Warbo and Dabo streams using macroinvertebrates as biological indicators. The status of water quality was assessed in terms of presence or absence of indicator organisms in relation to physicochemical parameters. Hilsenhoff Family-level Biotic Index (H-FBI) results have shown that the site 6 had relatively higher value (6.5) followed by site 5 (5.8). The site 1 recorded least H-FBI value which accounts for 3.2 followed by site 4 (3.74). For Ethiopian Biological Score Index (ETHbios index), highest score was recorded at site 3 (120) followed by site site 4 (102) while the lowest score was obtained for the site 6 and site 1 which accounts for 54 and 57 respectively. The Average Score Per Taxon (ASPT) value was comparatively higher for sites 1 (6.67) and site 3 (6.31) than other sites. Principal components analysis of physicochemical variables showed wide variation among the study sites. Axis 1 and axis 2 of the Principle Component Analysis (PCA) explained 97.5 % of the total variance regarding the sites versus physicochemical association, where the first axis and second axis contributed 73.04% and 24.56% to the variation, respectively. Results of Pearson correlation reaveled that there exists significant relation between variuos pollutant parameters.

Original Research Article

CHALLENGES POSED BY CLIMATE CHANGE AND NON-CLIMATE FACTORS ON CONSERVATION OF EDIBLE ORCHID IN SOUTHERN HIGHLANDS OF TANZANIA: THE CASE OF MAKETE DISTRICT

PATRICK M. NDAKI, FIDELIS ERICK, VICTORIA MOSHY

Journal of Global Ecology and Environment, Volume 13, Issue 4, Page 144-167

There is sufficient evidence supporting the fact that climate change and variability are pervasive realities that are strongly impacting both human and natural systems, including conservation of edible orchids in Southern Highland of Tanzania. The focus of the study was to investigate the role of climate variability and/or climate change as well as underlying non-climate factors negatively affecting conservation of edible orchids, as well as exploring potential approaches and strategic interventions for enhancing conservation of these edible orchids in Makete district.

Both quantitative and qualitative data collection methods were used to obtain data involving smallholder farmers as well as government officials and local communities. Primary data collection was undertaken in two phases, with phase one using participatory tools (e.g. focus group discussions, community mapping and transect walk, and historical timelines). Data collected include climatic and climatic information on farmers’ perceptions and adaptation strategies. Phase two involved detailed individual interviews (questionnaire surveys) and key informant interviews, to obtain in-depth information on issues of interest. Secondary data were collected from existing statistical sources, literature surveys in archives, libraries and documentation centers, and from government agencies (e.g. TMA and local government authorities). Results are presented in descriptive form: tables, figures and graphs. The data were analysed using SPSS and presented in tables, graphs and statistics while qualitative information is presented in quotations.

Results from selected meteorological station and community perceptions indicate that there has been an increase in average maximum temperatures, and both dry and wet years with varying magnitudes during the past four decades. Other climatic stresses include late onset and late cessation of rainfall in both short and long rain seasons. This study found that there are threats for extinction of edible orchid species due to climate change impacts i.e. increase of temperature and decline of rainfall challenging conservation of the orchids. In addition, the study identified several non-climate factors affecting the conservation of edible orchids including expansion of agriculture, population growth and deforestation. Through the findings, it is concluded that the conservation of edible orchid species is increasingly becoming a serious challenge and that both climate and non climate factors are exacerbating the challenge. To enhance sustainable conservation of the orchids, this study recommends promotion of conservation education and awareness creation. Likewise, domestication and restoration of edible orchids is recommended to reduce the risk of its extinction. Finally, promotion of alternative income generating activities in the area will be useful in reducing the pressure and demand of edible orchids in the study area. 

Original Research Article

ASSESSMENT OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOIL CHARACTERISTICS AND TREE DIVERSITY BY MULTI-VARIATE STATISTICAL ANALYSIS IN DRY DECIDUOUS FORESTS OF PALAKONDA HILL RANGES, SOUTHERN EASTERN GHATS, ANDHRA PRADESH, INDIA

P. SREEDHAR RAO, C. VENKATA RAMANA, M. SRIDHAR REDDY

Journal of Global Ecology and Environment, Volume 13, Issue 4, Page 168-174

Soil properties play an important role in ecosystem functioning that drive the variation in the tree diversity among the dry forests. The aim of the study is to know the relationship between soil properties and tree diversity from the soil samples collected from six 1ha study plots in Palakonda hill ranges, by using multivariate statistical analysis techniques like (Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA). The results indicate that (SOC) write out the full meaning before abbreviation had negative relationship and Nitrogen had positive relationship with Shannon diversity and tree species richness. Bulk density and soil texture better explained the variation in basal area and tree density among the study plots. Overall, soil properties showed moderate relationship with tree diversity but not the direct relationship.

Original Research Article

BACTERIOLOGICAL AND PARASITOLOGICAL QUALITY OF READY-TO-EAT RAW FRUITS AND VEGETABLES (4TH RANGE PRODUCTS) SOLD IN THE STREETS OF BAFOUSSAM CITY, WEST CAMEROON

NTANGMO TSAFACK HONORINE, JOKO TAMOUFÉ STÈVE, KENFACK SIMÉON, MELI TCHOFFO AUBERLIN, AZEUFACK JOSÉLINE, WAMBA FRANCK, TEMGOUA EMILE

Journal of Global Ecology and Environment, Volume 13, Issue 4, Page 175-184

Water-borne diseases are endemic in the city of Bafoussam, and there is a question as to whether fourth range products might play a role. The objective of this study was to determine the health risk associated with the consumption of these products by determining their bacteriological and parasito logical quality. Ninety samples were collected in the town of Bafoussam and subjected to bacteriological and parasitological analyses using standard methods. Salmonella spp. were detected on these foods with loads exceeding the EU standard by 1 to 13804 times, Escherichia. coli by 1 to 79433 times, faecal coliforms by 1 to 1698 times, Shigella spp. by 1 to 1698 times and faecal streptococci by 1 to 338 times. Protozoa cysts were detected on these foods; aubergines were the most contaminated (80%), followed respectively by carrots (50%), tiger nuts (70%), coconuts (50%), watermelons (30%), pineapples (20%), oranges (40%) and papayas (20%). No parasitic elements were found on apples. The consumption of these foods constitutes a real parsitological and bacteriological risk for consumers. The consumption of these foods constitutes a real health risk for consumers. In order to protect consumers, the public authorities should raise awareness among producers, sellers and consumers of these products.

Original Research Article

ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF BACTERIA ASSOCIATED WITH WASTE-WATER FROM HAIR-DRESSING SALONS IN AWKA METROPOLIS

CHUKWUEBUKA MARYVIN EZEOKOLI, CHRIS OKWUDILI ANYAMENE, EMMANUEL TOBECHUKWU UGWUOJI, CONSTANCE CHINYERE EZEMBA, BENJAMIN UZONNA ONONYE

Journal of Global Ecology and Environment, Volume 13, Issue 4, Page 185-191

This study was conducted to isolate and characterize bacteria associated with waste-water from hair-dressing salons in Awka- the state capital of Anambra, South-Eastern Nigeria. Samples were collected from five different locations in Awka namely: Zik’s Avenue, Unizik temporary site, Okpuno, Commissioners’ quarters and Ifite-Awka. The isolates obtained were examined and identified using microscopic, morphological, and biochemical characteristics. Five bacterial groups were isolated and identified. They include Staphylococcus aureous, Pseudomonas spp., Streptococcus spp., Escherichia coli and Bacillus spp.. It was observed that Staphylococcus aureous was isolated from all the waste-water samples from the five different locations. Bacterial counts revealed that samples from Unizik temporary site has the highest number of isolates while samples from Commissioners’ quarters had the least. The presence of these bacterial organisms is an indication that hair-dressing and beauty salons could be contributing to the spread of infection within Awka metropolis.

Review Article

THE MAJOR FACTORS OF TROPICAL BIODIVERSITY LOSS AND GOVERNANCE OF CONSERVATION MEASURES: SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

ABDULBASIT HUSSEIN

Journal of Global Ecology and Environment, Volume 13, Issue 4, Page 192-201

Though there is a wealth of theoretical evidence supporting the economic and social drivers of biodiversity loss, empirical evidence for the majority of these relationships is limited, if not non-existent. The loss of living diversity is exacerbated by habitat loss, foreign species introduction, biodiversity resource over-harvesting, and species uniformity in agriculture. All of these variables have one thing in common: they are all driven by humans. In this area, more research is required. Existing biodiversity-conservation methods are also debated and questioned for their ability to successfully reverse the loss of biodiversity-related cultural values, biological species, and ecosystems caused by these key causes of biodiversity loss. This comprehensive study examines the economic and societal aspects that contribute to Ethiopia's biodiversity loss, as well as potential opportunities. It also identifies potential roadblocks and future directions that should be pursued. To scale up biodiversity conservation loss, better promotion of practical conservation approaches, community-based management techniques, and sector-based conservation and integration should be adopted throughout the entire resource region. Better promotion of practical conservation measures, community-based management techniques, and sector-based conservation and integration should be applied throughout the resource region to scale up biodiversity conservation loss.  The widely held belief is that institutional variety and multi-level governance are essential to institutionalize biodiversity protection because of the characteristics and functions of biodiversity as well as the characteristics of the participants. Institutional diversity, on the other hand, isn't a panacea for successful biodiversity conservation, and it's much less beneficial for determining where to start. The Ethiopian case demonstrates what happens when according to theory the government “steps aside” and the “market works its wonders”. The goal is to shape institutional diversity's context-specific patterns by establishing actionable beginning points after recognizing its value. Guidance, mediation, and facilitation are all required.