MORPHOLOGICAL AND PHYLOGENETIC DIVERSITY OF Rhizoctonia solani Kühn (CANTHARELLALES: CERATOBASIDIACEAE) ISOLATES AFFECTING DIFFERENT HOSTS PLANTS IN MOROCCO

Main Article Content

IMAD KOTBA
AZDDINE ERRIFI
ABDELAAZIZ BOUAICHI
MOULAY ABDELAZIZ EL ALAOUI
AMINA OUAZZANI TOUHAMI
EL HASSAN ACHBANI
ALLAL DOUIRA

Abstract

Root and stem rot are serious fungal diseases caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn (Cantharellales: Ceratobasidiaceae) on several plant species worldwide.

This study was conducted, during the period between 2015 and 2018, to investigate morphological and phylogenetic diversity of R. solani strains isolated from different crops including melon, watermelon, olive tree, strawberries, tomato, and potato grown in different locations of Morocco. Fungal colonies of all the isolates collected from various host plants were morphologically diverse in color, growth rate and distribution of sclerotia (black scurf of potato).The variability in the growth rates of R. solani isolates was observed after 48 hrs incubation. The mycelium growth rate recorded for RS6 and RS1 isolates ranged between 8.3 and 12.7 mm/day respectively. After 15 days of incubation on PDA medium, the color of the sclerotia was classified into three groups based on the dominant spectral color. Also, distribution of the sclerotia in the colony was observed in the center or periphery of Petri dishes in most isolates except for isolates FOR and R2, which did not produce sclerotia. Molecular characterization, of studied isolates, based on sequence information of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1–ITS2) and nuclear small subunit rDNA (SSU rDNA) showed that there was no correlation between isolates and their geographical locations and host plant, suggesting a genetic similarity between RS13, RS8, RS6, RS3, RS1 and R1 isolates originating from different locations and host plants. In contrast, this phylogenetic characterization revealed that there is no similarity among R1, FOR and R2 isolates collected from strawberries plants and the same location (Moulay Bousselham). These results may help in the molecular characterization of the pathogen R. solani and for development of disease management strategies.

Keywords:
Rhizoctonia solani, black scurf of potato, morphological variability, genetic variability, Morocco.

Article Details

How to Cite
KOTBA, I., ERRIFI, A., BOUAICHI, A., ALAOUI, M. A. E., TOUHAMI, A. O., ACHBANI, E. H., & DOUIRA, A. (2020). MORPHOLOGICAL AND PHYLOGENETIC DIVERSITY OF Rhizoctonia solani Kühn (CANTHARELLALES: CERATOBASIDIACEAE) ISOLATES AFFECTING DIFFERENT HOSTS PLANTS IN MOROCCO. PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, 21(11-12), 24-34. Retrieved from https://ikprress.org/index.php/PCBMB/article/view/5036
Section
Original Research Article

References

Agrios GN. Introduction to plant pathology. Plant pathology. 3rded. Academic Press, San Diego, CA. 1988;3-40.

Kotba I, Achouri M, Benbouazza A, Achbani EH, Touhami AO, Douira A. Morphological, pathogenic and molecular characterisation of Rhizoctonia solani strains isolated from potato. Annual Research and Review in Biology. 2018;1-16.

Rahman M, Ali MA, Dey TK, Islam MM, Naher L, Ismail A. Evolution of disease and potential biocontrol activity of Trichoderma sp. against R. solani on potato. Biosci J. Uberlandia. 2014;30(4): 1108- 1117.

Seema M, Devaki NS. In vitro evaluation of biological control agents against Rhizoctonia solani. Jof Agric. Techn. 2012;8(1):233-240.

Osman MEH, El-Sheekh MM, Metwally MA, Ismail AEA, Ismail MM. Antagonistic activity of some fungi and Cyanobacteria species against R. solani. Int. J of Plant Pathology. 2011;2(3):101-114.

Lahlali R, Hijri M. Screening, identification and evaluation of potential biocontrol fungal endophytes against R. solani AG3 on potato plants. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2010;311:152-159.

Salunkhe VN, Armarkar Sarita, Ingle RW. Efficacy of fungicides and antagonistic effect of bioagent against Rhizoctonia bataticola isolates. Ann. Pl. Physiol. 2009; 22(1):134-137.

Hyakumachi M, Mushika TY, Ogosi Y, Toda T, Kageyama K, Tsuge T. Characterization of new cultural type of R. solani AG-2-2 isolated from warm season turf grass and its genetic differentiation from other cultural type. Plant Pathol. 1988;47:1-9.

Jaaffar AKM, Paulitz TC, Schroeder KL, et al. Molecular characterization, morpho-logical characteristics, virulence, and geographic distribution of Rhizoctonia spp. in Washington State. Phytopathology. 2016;106:459–473.

Wang L, Liu LM, Wang ZG, Huang SW. Genetic structure and aggressiveness of Rhizoctonia solani AG1-IA, the cause of sheath blight of rice in southern China. J Phytopathol. 2013;161:753–762.

DOI: 10.1111/jph.12127

Dubey SC, Tripathi A, Upadhyay BK. Molecular diversity analysis of Rhizoctonia solani isolates infecting various pulse crops in different agro-ecological regions of India. Folia Microbiol (Praha). 2012; 57:513–524.

Stodart BJ, Harvey PR, Neate SM, Melanson DL, Scott ES. Genetic variation and pathogenicity of anastomosis group 2 isolates of Rhizoctonia solani in Australia. Mycological Research. 2007;111:891–900.

Ceresini PC, Shew HD, Vilgalys RJ, Cubeta MA. Genetic diversity of Rhizoctonia solani AG-3 from potato and tobacco in North Carolina. Mycologia. 2002;94(3):437-449.

Taheri P, Gnanamanickam S, Höfte M. Characterization, genetic structure, and pathogenicity of Rhizoctonia spp. associated with rice sheath diseases in India. Popul Biol. 2007;97:373–383.

DOI: 10.1094/PHYTO-97-3-0373

Goswami SK, Singh V, Kashyap PL. Population genetic structure of Rhizoctonia solani AG1IA from rice field in North India. Phytoparasitica. 2017;45:299–316.

DOI: 10.1007/s12600- 017-0600-3

Singh V, Amaradasa BS, Karjagi CG, Lakshman DK, Hooda KS, et al. Morphological and molecular variability among Indian isolates of Rhizoctonia solani causing banded leaf and sheath blight in maize. European Journal of Pathology. 2018;152:45-60.

Duncan S, Barton JE, O'Brien PA.Analysis of variation in isolates of Rhizoctonia solani by random amplified polymorphic DNA assay. Mycol Res. 1993;97:1075-1082.

Toda T, Hyakumachi M, Arora DK.Genetic relatedness among and within different Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis groups as assessed by RAPD, ERIC and REP-PCR. Microbiol Res. 1999;154:247-258.

Fenille RC, de Souza NL, Kuarmae EE. Characterization of Rhizoctonia solani associated with soybean in Brazil. Eur J Plant Pathol. 2002;108:783-792.

Fang, X, Finnegan PM, Barbetti MJ. Wide variation in virulence and genetic diversity of binucleate Rhizoctonia isolates associated with root rot of strawberry in Western Australia. PLOS One. 2013;8: 55877.

Djébali N, Elkahoui S, Taamalli W, Hessini K, Tarhouni B, Mrabet M. Tunisian Rhizoctonia solani AG3 strains affect potato shoot macronutrients content, infect faba bean plants and show in vitro resistance to azoxystrobin. Australasian Plant Pathology. 2014;43(3): 347-358.

Rashad YM, Abdel-Fattah GM, Hafez EE, El-Haddad SA. Diversity among some Egyptian isolates of Rhizoctonia solani based on anastomosis grouping, molecular identification and virulence on common bean. African Journal of Microbiology Research. 2012;6(37):6661-6667.

Sneh B, Burpee L, Ogoshi A. Identification of Rhizoctonia species. American Phytopathological Society Press, Saint Paul, USA. 1991;133.

Lal M, Singh V, Kandhari J, Sharma P, Kumar V, et al. Diversity analysis of Rhizoctonia solani causing sheath blight of rice in India. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2014;13:4594-4605.

Basu A, Podder M, Prasanta K, Sengupta. Variability and anastomosis among the rice isolates of Rhizoctonia solani. Indian Phytopathology. 2004;57(1):70-72.

White TJ, Bruns T, Lee SJWT, Taylor J. Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetic. PCR protocols: A guide to methods and applications. 1990;18(1):315-322.

Tajima F, Nei M. Estimation of evolutionary distance between nucleotide sequences. Molecular Biology and Evolution. 1984;1:269-285.

Tamura K, Stecher G, Peterson D, Filipski A, Kumar S. MEGA6: Molecular evolutionary genetics analysis version 6.0. Molecular Biology and Evolution. 2013;30:2725-2729.

Das S, Plyler-Harveson T, Santra DK, Harveson RM, Nielsen KA. A longitudinal study on morphogenetic diversity of pathogenic Rhizoctonia solani from sugar beet and dry beans of western Nebraska. bioRxiv. 2019;635482.

Pralhad SP, Krishnaraj PU, Prashanthi SK. Morphological and molecular characterization of Rhizoctonia solani causing sheath blight in rice. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci.2019;8(1):1714-1721.

Desvani SD, Lestari IB, Wibowo HR, Poromarto SH. Morphological characteristics and virulence of Rhizoctonia solani isolates collected from some rice production areas in some districts of Central Java. 2014;20068-1-20068–6.

Goswami BK, Bhuiyan KA, Mian IH. Morphological and pathogenic variations in the isolates of Rhizoctonia solani in Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Research.2010;35(3):375-380.

Sharma M, Gupta SK, Sharma TR. Characterization of variability in Rhizoctonia solani by using morphological and molecular markers. Journal of Phytopathology. 2005;153:449–456.

Vineeta S, Singh US, Singh KP, Major S, Anil K. Genetic diversity of Rhizoctonia solani isolates from rice: Differentiation by morphological characteristics, pathogenicity, anastomosis behavior and RAPD fnger printing. Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology.2002;32:332–344.

Skonieczek P, Nowakowski M, Piszcek J, Zurek M, Matyka L. Influence of selected Rhizoctonia solani isolates on sugar beet seedlings. Journal of Plant Protection Research. 2016;56:116–121.

Yang Y, Zhao C, Guo Z, Wu X. Anastomosis group and pathogenicity of Rhizoctonia solani associated with stem canker and black scurf of potato in China. European Journal of Plant Pathology. 2015;143:99- 111.

Parmeter JR, Whitney HS. In Rhizoctonia solani, biology and pathology (Parmeter, JR, Jr. ed.). Univ. Calif. Press, Berkeley. 1970;7-19.

Erper I, Kilicoglu MC, Turkkan M, Onder H. Characterization and pathogenicity of Rhizoctonia spp. isolated from winter squash in the Black Sea region of Turkey. European Journal of Plant Pathology. 2016;146:683-697.

Yang S, Min F, Wang W, Wei Q, Guo M, Gao Y, Dong X, Lu D. anastomosis group and pathogenicity of Rhizoctonia solani associated with stem canker and black scurf of potato in Heilongjiang Province of China. American Journal of Potato Research. 2017;94:95-104.

Carling DE, Kuninaga S, Brainard KA. Hyphal anastomosis reactions, rDNA-internal transcribed spacer sequences, and virulence levels among subsets of Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 2 (AG-2) and AG-BI. Phytopathology. 2002b;92:4350.

Gonzalez D, Caning DE, Kuninaga S, Vilgalys R, Cubeta MA. Ribosomal DNA systematics of Ceratobasidiurn and Thanatephorus with Rhizoctonia anamorphs. Mycologia. 2001;93:1138-1150.

Kuninaga S, Natsuaki T, Takeuchi T, Yokosawa R. Sequence variation of the rDNA ITS regions within and between anastomosis groups in Rhizoctonia solani. Curr Genet. 1997;32:237-243.

Madhavi M, Reddy PN, Reddy RR, Reddy SS. Morphological and molecular variability of Rhizoctonia solani isolates causing banded leaf and sheath blight in maize. International Journal of Bio-resource and Stress Management. 2015; 6(3):375-385.

Khodayari M, Safaie N, Shamsbakhsh M. Genetic diversity of Iranian AG1 IA isolates of Rhizoctonia solani, the cause of rice sheath blight, using morphological and molecular markers. Journal of Phyto-pathology. 2009;157(11/12):708-714.

Tingdan L, Shiwen P, Zonghua W, Guodong L. Genetic diversity analysis of Rhizoctonia solani populations from Fujian using inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) technique. Acta Phytopathol Sin. 2010; 40:186–194.