Main Article Content



Cotton the most important textile crop is grouped in to four cultivated species G. barbadense, G.hirsutum, G. herbaceum and G.arboreum. G. hirsutum is the most commonly grown worldwide and nearly 25 M tons bales of total cotton is produced annually. In India cotton is grown in 125.86 lakh hectare area and the production is 370 lakh bale in the year 2018/2019.Cotton fibers are single elongated cells originate from the epidermal layer and fiber initiation occurs on the day of anthesis, they rapidly elongate during 5-20 (days post anthesis) dpa normally. The onset of secondary cell wall biosynthesis typically occurs from 16-21 dpa depending on the cotton species and environmental conditions. The secondary cell wall biosynthesis overlaps by several days from fibre initiation to elongation; the maximum cell wall deposition takes place between 21-23 dpa. Expression of genes at each stage has its own distinctive regulatory features. In the present study, we selected major candidate genes viz., GhcesA1, GhcesA2 and GhcesA7 which are associated with secondary cell wall biosynthesis. The gene expression analysis of RILs mapping population revealed transcriptomic differences in low, medium and high fiber strength RILs at different fiber developmental stages. The gene expression data of qPCR analysis showed higher gene expression level in GhcesA1, GhcesA2, and GhcesA7 genes in the high fiber strength lines at 25, 30 dpa, whereas  gene expression in low and medium fibre strength lines at all the fiber developmental stages. The cellulose synthase and 1,3- β -glucanase increases the secondary cell wall synthesis in cotton fibers. The study revealed that gene expression of GhcesA1, GhcesA2, GhcesA7 genes increased exponentially around 5–10 dpa, reaching a maximum at 15dpa-23dpa, coinciding with the increased cellulose accumulation.

G. hirsutum, fibre strength, candidate fiber genes, GhcesA1, GhcesA2, GhcesA7, cotton RILs, QPCR gene expression.

Article Details

How to Cite
Original Research Article


Wendel JF. New world tetraploid cottons contain old world cytoplasm. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 1989;86:132–4136.

Chen ZJ, Scheffler BE, Dennis E, Triplett B, Zhang T, Chen X, Stelly DM, Rabinowicz PD, Town C, Arioli T, Brubaker C, Cantrell R, Lacape JM, Ulloa M, Chee P, Gingle AR, Haigler CH, Percy R, Saha S, Wilkins T, Wright RJ, Deynze AV, Zhu Y, Yu S, Guo W, Abdur akhmonov I, Katageri I, Rahman M, Zafar Y, Yu JZ, Kohel RJ, Wendel J, Paterson AH. Towards sequencing cotton (Gossypium) genomes. Plant Physiol. 2007; 145:1303–1310.

Haigler CH, Zhang D, Wilkerson CG. Biotechnological improvement of cotton fibre maturity. Physiol. Plantarum. 2005; 124:285-294.

Maltby D, Carpita NC, Montezinos D, KulowY, Delmer DP. Beta-1,3-glucanin developing cotton fibers–structure, localization and relationship of synthesis to that of secondary wall cellulose. Plant Physiol. 1979;63:1158–114.

Kim HJ, Triplett BA. Cotton fiber growth in planta and In vitro: Models for plant cell elongation and cell wall biogenesis. Plant Physiol. 2001;127:1361-1366.

Hinchliffe DJ, Meredith WR, Yeater KM, Kim HJ, Woodward AWZ, Chen ZJ, Triplett BA. Near-isogenic cotton germplasm lines that differ in fiber-bundle strength have temporal differences in fiber gene expression patterns as revealed by comparative high-throughput profiling. Theor Appl Genet. 2010;120:1347–1366.

Basra A, Malik CP. Development of the cotton fibre. International Review of Cytology. 1984;89:65–113.

Meinert M, Delmer DP. Changes in biochemical composition of the cell wall of the cotton fiber during development. Plant Physiol. 1977;59:1088-1097.

Tokumoto H, Wakabayashi K, Kamisaka S, Hoson T. Changes in the sugar composition and molecular mass distribution of matrix polysaccharides during cotton fiber development. Plant Cell Physiol. 2002;43: 411-418.

Nicol F, His I, Jauneau A, Vernhettes S, Canut, H, Hofte H. A plasma membrane-bound putative endo-1,4-β-d-glucanase isrequired for normal wall assembly and elongation in Arabidopsis. EMBO Journal. 1998;17:5563–5576.

Zhou Z, Yali M, Youhua W, Binglin C,Xinhua Z, Derrick MO, Hongmei S. Effect of Planting Date and Boll Position on Fiber Strength of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) American Journal of Experimental Agriculture. 2011;1(4):331-342.

Lane DR, Wiedemeier A, Peng L, Hofte H, Vernhettes S, Desprez T, Hocart CH, Birch RJ, Baskin TI, Burn JE. et al. Temperature sensitive alleles of rsw2 link the korrigan endo-1,4-β-glucanase to cellulose synthesis and cytokinesis in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiology. 2001;126:278–288.

Sato S, Kato T, Kakegawa K, Ishii T, Liu YG, Awano T, Takabe K, Nishiyama Y, Kuga S. Role of the putative membrane-bound endo-1,4-β-glucanase korrigan in cell elongation and cellulose synthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant & Cell Physiology. 2001;42:251–263.

Delmer D. Cellulose biosynthesis: Exciting times for a difficult field of study. Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. 1999;50:245-276.

Pear JR, Kawagoe Y, Schreckengost WE, Delmer DP, Stalker DM. Higher plants contain homologs of the bacterial celA genes encoding the catalytic subunit of cellulose synthase. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 1996;93:12637-12642.

Smart LB, Vojdani F, Maeshima M, Wilkins TA. Genes involved in osmoregulation during turgor-driven cell expansion of developing cotton fibers are differentially regulated. Plant Physiol. 1998;116:1539-1549.

Shimizu Y, Aotsuka S, Hasagawa O, Kawada T, Sakuno T, Sakai F, Hayashi T. Changes in levels of mRNAs for cell wall-related enzymes in growing cotton fiber cells. Plant Cell Physiol. 1997;38:375-378.

Whittaker DJ, Triplett BA. Gene-specific changes in α-tubulin transcript accumulation in developing cotton fibers. Plant Physiol. 1999;121:181-188.

Mueller SC, Brown RM. Jr. Evidence for an intramembranous component associated with a cellulose microfibril synthesizing complex in higher plants. J. Cell Biol. 1980;84:315-326.

Kimura S, Laosinchai W, Itoh T, Cui X, Linder CR, Brown RM. Jr. Immunogold labeling of rosette terminal cellulose-synthesizing complexes in the vascular plant Vigna angularis. Plant Cell. 1999;11: 2075-86.

Doblin M, Kurek ID, Jacob-Wilk, Delmer D. Cellulose biosynthesis in plants: From genes to rosettes. Plant Cell Physiol. 2002; 43:1407-1420.

Richmond TA, Somerville CR. The cellulose synthase superfamily. Plant Physiol. 2000;124:495-498.

Saxena IM, Brown RM, Fevre M, Geremia R, Henrissat B. Multi-domain architecture of glycosyl transferases: Implications for mechanism of action. J. Bacteriol. 1995; 177:1419-1424.

Kurek I, Kawagoe Y, Jacob-Wilk D, Doblin M, Delmer D. Dimerization of cotton fiber cellulose synthase catalytic subunits occurs via oxidation of the zinc-binding domains. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 2002;99:11109-11114.

Bowman DT, vanEsbroeck GA, Van’tHof J, Jividen GM. Ovule fiber cell numbers in modern upland cottons. Journal of Cotton Science. 2001;5:81–83.

Naithani SC, Rao N, Rama Singh YD. Physiological and biochemical changes associated with cotton fibre development. Plant Physiol. 1982;54:225-229.

Wilkin, TA, Jernstedt JA. Molecular genetics of developing cotton fibers. In: Basra AS, editor. Cotton fibers: Developmental biology, quality improvement, and textile processing. New York, NY: Hawthorne Press. 1999;231-69.

Ghazi YA, Bourot S, Arioli T, Dennis ES, Llewellyn DJ. Transcript profiling during fiber development identifies pathways in secondary metabolism and cell wall structure that may contribute to cotton fiber quality. Plant Cell Physiol. 2009;50(7): 1364–1381.

Sheng-Jian Ji, Ying-Chun LU, Jian-Xun FENG, Gang WEI, Jun LI, Yong-Hui SHI, Qiang FU, Di LIU, Jing-Chu LUO, Yu-Xian ZHU. Solation and analyses of genes preferentially expressed during early cotton fiber development by subtractive PCR and cDNA array. Nucleic Acid Research. 2003; 31(10):2534-2543.

Li A, Xia T, Xu W, Chen T, Li X, Fan J, Wang R, Feng S, Wang Y, Wang B. An integrative analysis of four CESA isoforms specific for fiber cellulose production between Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadense. Planta. 2013; 237:1585–1597.

Brown SM, Whitwell T, Touchton JT, Burmester CH. Conservation tillage systems for cotton production, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 1985;49:1256-1260.

Somerville C, Bauer S, Brininstool G, Facette M, Hamann T, Milne J, Osborne E, Paredez A, Persson S, Raab T, Vorwerk S, Youngs H. Toward a systems approach to understanding plant cell wall. Science. 2004;306(5705):2206-11.

Zhang M, Zheng X, Song S, Zeng Q, Hou L, Li D, Zhao J, Wei Y, Li X, Luo M, Xiao, Y, Luo X, Zhang J, Xiang C, Pei Y. Spatiotemporal manipulation of auxin biosynthesis in cotton ovule epidermal cells enhances fiber yield and quality. Nature Biotechnol, 2011;29:453–458.

Betancur L, Singh B, Rapp RA, Wendel JF, Marks MD, Roberts AW, Haigler CH. Phylogenetically distinct cellulose synthase genes support secondary wall thickening in Arabidopsis shoot trichomes and cotton fiber, J. Integr. Plant Biol. 2010;52:205–220.

Grover CE, Kim H, Wing RA, Paterson AH, Wende JF. Incongruent patterns of local and global genome size evolution in cotton. Genome Res. 2004;14:1474-1482.

Laosinchai W, Cui X, Brown RM. Jr. A full length cDNA of cotton cellulose synthase has high homology with the Arabidopsis rsw1 gene and the cotton Cel1 gene (Accession No. AF200453). (PGR00-002) Plant Physiol. 2000;122:291.

Hays JB. Arabidopsis thaliana, a versatile model system for study of eukaryotic genome-maintenance functions. DNA Repair (Amst). 2002;1(8):579-600.

Meinke DW, Cherry JM, Dean C, Rounsley SD, Koornneef M. Arabidopsis thaliana: A model plant for genome analysis. Science. 1998;282:662:679-82.

Holland N, Holland D, Helentjaris T, Kanwarpal S, Cazares B, Delmer D. A comparative analysis of the plant cellulose synthase (CesA) gene family. Plant Physiology. 2000;123:1313-1324.

Li C, Zhu Y, Meng Y, Wang J, Xu K, Zhang K, Chen X. Isolation of genes preferentially expressed in cotton fibers by cDNA filter arrays and RT-PCR. Plant Sci. 2002;163: 1113-1120.

Shangguan Xiao-Xia, Bing Xu, Zong-Xia Yu, Ling-Jian Wang, Xiao-Ya Chen. Promoter of a cotton fibre MYB gene functional in trichomes of Arabidopsis and glandular trichomes of tobacco. Journal Experimental Botany, 2008;59(13):3533–3542.

Pearsson S, Paredez A, Carroll A, Palsdottir H, Doblin M, Poindexter P, Khitrov N, Auer M, Somerville CR. Genetic evidence for three unique components in primary cell-wall cellulose synthase complexes in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2007;104: 15566–15571.

Kim HJ, Murai N, Fanga D, Barbara A. Functional analysis of Gossypium hirsutum cellulose synthase catalytic subunit 4 promoter in transgenic Arabidopsis and cotton tissues. Plant Sci. 2011;180:323-332.

Arioli T, Peng L, Betzner AS, Burn J, Wittke W, Herth W, Camilleri C, Hofte H, Plazinski J, Birch R, Cork A, Clover J, Redmond J, Williamson RE. Molecular analysis of cellulose biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. Science. 1998;279:717-720.

Kohel RJ, McMichael SC. Immature fiber mutant of upland cotton. Crop Sci, 1990; 30:419–421.

Mølhøj M, Johansen B, Ulvskov P, Borkhardt B. Expression of a membrane-anchored endo-1,4-β-glucanase from Brassica napus, orthologous to KOR from Arabidopsis thaliana, is inversely correlated to elongation in light-grown plants. Plant Mol Biol. 2001;45:93. Available:

Molhoj M, Pagant S, Hofte H. Towards understanding the role of membrane-bound endo-β-1,4-glucanases in cellulose biosynthesis. Plant and Cell Physiology. 2002;43:1399–1406.

Kim HJ, Tang Y, Moon HS, Delhom CD, Fang DD. Functional analyses of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) immature fiber (im) mutant infer that fiber cell wall development is associated with stress responses. BMC Genomics. 2013;14: 889.

Wang GF, Li WQ, Li WY, Wu GL, Zhou CY, Chen KM. Characterization of rice NADPH oxidase genes and their expression under various environmental conditions. Int J Mol Sci. 2013;14:9440–9458.