Main Article Content
Despite the significant economic importance of avocado, pathogens infection, low yielding varieties and inappropriate farming mainly affected productivity of avocados. The development of vegetative propagation methods using tissue culture techniques such as apical buds, and auxiliary culture promote agricultural productivity. A protocol for mass propagation of avocado from apical and auxiliary buds of three Ethiopian avocado accessions was developed. A lower percentage of contaminated explants (10%) were exhibited in the sterilization treatment combinations of one drop Tween 20 and 1% fungicide for 5min plus 70% ethanol for 1min plus 1% NaClO for 5 min. The highest mean number of shoots were obtained on MS medium containing 0.125 mg/L IBA and 0.125mg/L IAA from Arba Minch chano mille accession, 0.125 mg/L BAP + (0.125 mg/L IBA or 0.125 mg/L IAA) from Teppi accession and 1.0 mg/L BAP + (0.125 mg/L IBA and 0.125 mg/L IAA) from Buta-Jira avocado accession. The maximum mean number of roots (1.86±0.12) and (1.50±0.08) were obtained on MS-medium containing 1.0 mg/L IBA and 1 mg/L NAA hormone, respectively. During acclimatization, ~54% of the plants were survived and adapted in the field conditions. The hormone combination of 0.125 mg/L IBA and free 6-BAP was the best for shoot initiation from Arba Minch chano mille and Teppi avocado accessions while 1 mg/L BAP and IBA was the best for Buta-Jira accession. The effective hormone concentration for rooting of both shoots initiated from apices and auxiliary buds was MS medium supplemented with 1 mg/l IBA.
Aruna M, Mali, Niranjana Chavan S. In vitro rapid regeneration through direct organogenesis and ex-vitro establishment of Cucumis trigonus Roxb. An underutilized pharmaceutically important cucurbit. Industrial Crops and Products. 2016;83:48–54.
Barrera G. JL, Ramirez-Malagon R, Martinez-Jaime OA. In vitro propagation of avocado (Persea drymifolia Ness) (IAEA-TECDOC--1216). International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); 2001.
Barcelo MA, Pliego-Alfaro F. Micro propagation of avocado (Persea americana Mill.). In: Jain S.M., Ishii K. (eds) Micropropagation of woody trees and fruits. Forestry Sciences. Springer, Dordrecht. 2003;75.
Cooksey DA, Ohr DH, Azad HR, Menge JA and Korsten L. Xanthomonas campestris associated with avocado canker in California. Plant Disease. 1993;77:95-99.
Colette C, Percheron C, Pares-Herbute N, et al. Exchanging carbohydrates for monounsaturated fats in energy-restricted diets: Effects on metabolic profile and other cardiovascular risk factors. Int. J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2003;27(6):648-656.
Bushra Zulfiqar, Nadeem Akhtar Abbasi, Touqeerahmadand Ishfaq Ahmed Hafiz, Effect of explant sources and different concentrations of plant growth regulators on In vitro shoot proliferation and rooting of avocado (Persea americana mill.) cv. "fuerte". Pak. J. Bot. 2009; 41(5):2333-2346.
Zekarias Shumeta. Avocado production and marketing in southwestern Ethiopia. Trends in Agricultural Economics. 2010;3:190-206.
Fuentes JL, Rodríguez NN, Santiago L, Valdés Y, Ramírez IM, Velazquez B, Prieto E and Guerra, M. Zygotic embryo culture and mutation breeding in avocado (Persea americana Mill), In: Proceeding of Word Avocado Congress; 2004.
Deepti Dabas, Rachel M. Shegog, Gregory R. Ziegler and Joshua D. Lambert. “Avocado (Persea americana) Seed as a source of bioactive Phytochemicals”. Current Pharmaceutical Design. 2013;19: 6133.
Gustafson CD. Kadman A. Effect of some plant hormones on the rooting capacity of avocado cuttings. California Avocado Society Yearbook. 1970;53:97-100.
Lavi U, Lahav E, Genizi A, Degani C, Gazit S, Hillel J. Quantitative genetic analysis of traits in avocado cultivars. Plant Breeding. 1991;106:149-160.
Lu QY, Arteaga JR, Zhang Q, Huerta S, Go VL, Heber D.. Inhibition of prostate cancer cell growth by an avocado extract: Role of lipid-soluble bioactive substances. J Nutr Biochem. 2005; 16(1):23-30.
Donetti M, Leon A. Terry. Biochemical markers defining growing area and ripening stage of imported avocado fruit cv. Hass Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 2013;34(1):90-98.
Amin MN, Jaiswal, VS. In vitro response of apical bud explants from mature trees of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus). Plant Cell Tiss Organ Cult. 1993;33:59–65.
Pa Harty. Propagation of avocados by tissue culture: Development of a culture medium for multiplication of shoots. South African Avocado Growers’ Association Yearbook. 1985;8:70-71.
Pieterse Z, Jerling JC, Oosthuizen W, et al. Substitution of high monounsaturated fatty acid avocado for mixed dietary fats during an energy-restricted diet: effects on weight loss, serum lipids, fibrinogen and vascular function. Nutrition. 2005;21(1):67-75.
Pliego-Alfaro F, López-Encina C, Barceló-Muñoz A. Propagation of avocado rootstocks by tissue culture. South Afric. Avocado Growers’ Assoc. Yrbk. 1987;10: 36–39.
Pliego-Alfaro F, Bergh BO. Avocado, in Hammerschlag, F.A. and Litz, R.E. (eds). Biotechnology of perennial fruit crops. Biotechnology in Agriculture. 1992;8:323-334.
Murashige T, Skoog F. A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue culture. Plant Physiology. 1962;15:473-493.
Premkumar A, Barceló –Muñoz A, Quesada MA, Mercado JA, Pliego Alfaro F. Influence of sucrose concentration on In vitro rooting, growth, endogenous sugars and Ex vitro survival of juvenile avocado. The Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology. 2003;78(1):46-50,
Ramírez Gil G. First report of Cylindrocarpon destructans (Zinss) Scholten affecting avocado (Persea americana Mill) seedling in Colombia. Revista de Protección Vegetal. 2013;28:27.
Rohim FM, Wanas WH, Abou Aziz AB. Abd El-Hamid, Eman A, Abd El- Moniem A. In vitro rescue and regeneration of zygotic embryos of Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) cv. Hass. Journal of Applied Sciences Research. 2013;9(7): 4132-4141.
Rohwer JG, Lauranceae, kubitzki K, Rohwer J, Bittrich V. (eds).The families and Genera of flowering plants. Springer, Berlin. 1993;426-437.
Sivanesan. Direct regeneration from apical bud explants Withania somnifera Dunal. Indian Journal of Biotechnology. 2007;6: 125-127.
Restrepo Osorio, Catalina, Gómez Velásquez, Felipe Andrés, Gil Correal, Alejandro, Torres Bonilla, Javier Mauricio, Urrea Trujillo, Aura Inés. In vitro propagation of avocado (Persea americana Mill.) cv. Hass through morphogenesis. Acta Agronómica. 2018;67(1):160-167.
Vitale A, Aiello D, Guarnaccia V, Perrone G, Stea G, Polizzi G. First report of root rot caused by Ilyonectria (Neonectria) macrodidyma on avocado (Persea americana) in Italy. Journal of Phytopathology. 2012;160:156-159.
Zentmyer GA. Avocado diseases. Tropical Pest Management. 1984;30(4):388-400.