Main Article Content



Recently, it is estimated that over 970 million people worldwide are suffering from mental disorder. Globally, over 284 million people are suffering from anxiety disorder, about 264 million people from depression, 45 million people from bipolar disorder, 20 million people from schizophrenia and over 50 million people have dementia. Anxiety disorders are considered the most common mental illness which comprises approximately 4% of the worldwide population. Being a high prevalence rate, anxiety disorders also account for one of the major expenditure for its management. These horrible data are attracting the researchers’ attention towards pharmacotherapeutic approaches for the management of such modernization-borne disorders. Although, medicinal chemists have explored different class of compounds to prevent anxiety disorders, there is still much to be done in this area. High systemic toxicity of synthetic drugs (barbiturates, benzodiazepines etc.) have accelerated the focus on the search for newer natural products which combat anxiety disorders, and have more human acceptability, being relatively less or non-toxic. The current review comprises references from various databases such as ScienceDirect, SciFinder, Chemical Abstracts, PubMed, Dr. Dukes Phytochemical & Ethnobotany, InteliHealth, CIMER etc. The present review emphasizes on various plants used for the management of anxiety disorders with their botanical name, common name, part/extract/isolated phytoconstituent used, doses, mechanism of action, animal models/clinical parameters in human being and patented formulations.

Anxiolytic plants, animal models/clinical parameters, patented formulations.

Article Details

How to Cite
Review Article


WHO. The world health report- Investing in mental health. WHO, Department of mental health and substance dependence: Avenue Appia, Geneva 27, Switzerland; 2003.

Reynolds EH. Brain and mind, a challenge for WHO. Lancet. 2003;361:1924.

WHO. The World Health Report 2004: Changing History, Annex Table 3: Burden of disease in DALYs by cause, sex, and mortality stratum in WHO regions, estimates for 2002; 2004. Available:

Kessler RC, Berglund P, Demler O, Jin R, Merikangas KR, Walters EE. Life time prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Arch Gen Psychiatr. 2005;62:593.

Kessler RC, Wang PS. The descriptive epidemiology of commonly occurring mental disorders in the United States. Annu Rev Public Health. 2008;29:115.

Eisenberg DM, Davis RB, Ettner SL, Appel S, Wilkey S, Van Rompay M. Trends in alternative medicine use in the United States. JAMA (The Journal of the American Medical Association). 1998; 280: 1569.

Dopheide J, Park S. The Psychopharmacology of Anxiety. Psychiatr Times. 2002;193. Available:

Mendlowicz MV, Stein MB. Quality of life in individuals with anxiety disorders. Am J Psychiatr, 2000;157:669.

Gladis MM, Gosch EA, Dishuk NM, Crits-Christoph P. Quality of life: expanding the scope of clinical significance. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1999;67:320.

Baldessarini RJ. Drugs and the treatment of psychiatric disorders. In: J.G. Hardman and L.E. Limbird (Eds), 10th Ed. Goodman and Gilman’s. The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, The McGraw-Hill Companies, New York, USA. 2001;399-427.

WHO Report, World Health Organization, Geneva, 2002, WHO/EDM/TRM/. 2002; 19.

Carlini EA. Plants and the central nervous system. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2003; 75:501.

Molina-Hernandez M, Tellez-Alcantara NP, Diaz MA, Perez Garcia J, Olivera Lopez JI, Jaramillo MT. Anticonflict actions of aqueous extract of flowers of Achillea millefolium L. vary according to the estrous cycle phases in Wistar rats, Phytother Res. 2004;18:915.

Singh VS, Singh R, Trivedi VP. Evaluation of combined effect of Vach (Acorus calamus Linn.) and Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pannell) in the prevention and management of anxiety neurosis (Monodvega). In: 2nd World Congress on "Biotechnological Developments of Herbal Medicine", National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh. 2003;76.

Madaan R, Sharma A. Anti-anxiety activity of various fractions of Actaea spicata Linn. J Pharm Biomed Sci. 2010;4:1.

Madaan R, Sharma A. Evaluation of anti-anxiety activity of Actaea spicata Linn. Int J Pharm Sci Drug Res. 2011;3:45.

Bourbonnais-Spear N, Awad R, Merali Z, Maquin P, Cal V, Arnason JT. Ethnopharmacological investigation of plants used to treat susto, a folk illness, J Ethnopharmacol. 2007;109:380.

Shri R, Bhutani KK, Sharma A. A new anxiolytic fatty acid from Aethusa cynapium, Fitoterapia, 2010;81:1053.

Jung JW, Cho JH, Ahn NY, Oh HR, Kim SY, Jang CG, Ryu JH. Effect of chronic Albizzia julibrissin treatment on 5-hydroxytryptamine1A receptors in rat brain, Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2005; 81:205.

Une HD, Sarveiya VP, Pal SC, Kasture VS, Kasture SB. Nootropic and anxiolytic activity of saponins of Albizzia lebbeck leaves. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2001; 69:439.

Mora S, Díaz-Véliz G, Millán R, Lungenstrass H, Quirós S, Coto-Morales T, Hellión-Ibarrola MC. Anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects of the hydroalcoholic extract from Aloysia polystachya in rats, Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2005;82:373.

Hellion-Ibarrola MC, Ibarrola DA, Montalbetti Y, Kennedy ML, Heinichen O, Campuzano M, Tortoriello J, Fernández S, Wasowski C, Marder M, De Lima TC, Mora S. The anxiolytic-like effects of Aloysia polystachya (Griseb.) Moldenke (Verbenaceae) in mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006; 105:400.

Satou T, Murakami S, Matsuura M, Hayashi S, Koike K. Anxiolytic effect and tissue distribution of inhaled Alpinia zerumbet essential oil in mice,Nat Prod Commun. 2010;5:143.

Bergendorff O, Dekermendjian K, Nielsen M, Shan R, Witt R, Ai J, Sterner O. Furanocoumarins with affinity to brain benzodiazepine receptors In vitro. Phytochemistry. 1997;44:1121.

Sousa FC, Melo CT, Monteiro AP, Lima VT, Gutierrez SJ, Pereira BA, Barbosa-Filho JM, Vasconcelos SM, Fonteles MF, Viana GS. Antianxiety and antidepressant effects of riparin III from Aniba riparia (Nees) Mez (Lauraceae) in mice. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2004;78:27.

Lopez-Rubalcava C, Piña-Medina B, Estrada-Reyes R, Heinze G, Martínez-Vázquez M. Anxiolytic-like actions of the hexane extract from leaves of Annona cherimolia in two anxiety paradigms: possible involvement of the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor complex. Life Sci. 2006;78:730.

González-Trujano ME, Martínez AL, Reyes-Ramírez A, Reyes-Trejo B, Navarrete A. Palmitone isolated from Annona diversifolia induces an anxiolytic-like effect in mice,Planta Med. 2006;72: 703.

Grundmann O, Nakajima J, Seo S, Butterweck V. Anti-anxiety effects of Apocynum venetum L. in the elevated plus maze test. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007;110: 406.

Grundmann O, Nakajima J, Kamata K, Seo S, Butterweck V. Kaempferol from the leaves of Apocynum venetum possesses anxiolytic activities in the elevated plus maze test in mice, Phytomedicine. 2009; 16:295.

Valcheva-Kuzmanova S, Zhelyazkova-Savova M. Anxiolytic-like effect of Aronia melanocarpa fruit juice in rats. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 2009;31:651.

Jaiswal AK, Bhattacharya SK, Acharya SB. Anxiolytic activity of Azadirachta indica leaf extract in rats. Indian J Exp Biol. 1994; 32:489.

Yanpallewar S, Rai S, Kumar M, Chauhan S, Acharya SB. Neuroprotective effect of Azadirachta indica on cerebral post-ischemic reperfusion and hypoperfusion in rats. Life Sci. 2005;76:1325.

Adeyemi OO, Yemitan OK, Taiwo AE. Neurosedative and muscle-relaxant activities of ethyl acetate extract of Baphia nitida AFZEL. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006; 106:312.

Akindele AJ, Adeyemi OO. Anxiolytic and sedative effects of Byrsocarpus coccineus Schum. and Thonn. (Connaraceae) extract. Int J Appl Res Nat Prod. 2010;3:28.

Saaby L, Rasmussen HB, Jäger AK. MAO-A inhibitory activity of quercetin from Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull, J Ethnopharmacol. 2009;121:178.

Heese T, Jenkinson J, Love C, Milam R, Perkins L, Adams C, McCall S, Ceremuga TE. Anxiolytic effects of L-theanine--a component of green tea--when combined with midazolam, in the male Sprague-Dawley rat. AANA J. 2009;77:445.

Campos AC, Guimaraes FS. Involvement of 5HT1A receptors in the anxiolytic-like effects of cannabidiol injected into the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray of rats. Psychopharmacology. 2008; 199:223.

Gomes FV, Resstel LBM, Guimaraes FS. The anxiolytic-like effects of cannabidiol injected into the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis are mediated by 5-HT1A receptors, Psychopharmacology. 2011; 213:465.

Landaverde NA, Juarez-Flores BI, Jimenez-Capdeville ME, Ortiz-Perez MD. Anxiolytic and sedative effects of essential oil from Casimiroa pringlei on Wistar rats, J Med Plants Res. 2009;3: 791.

Bhushan P, Jadhav RB. Anti-anxiety activity of Celastrus paniculatus seeds. Indian J Nat Prod. 2003;19:16.

Rajkumar R, Kumar EP, Sudha S, Suresh B. Evaluation of anxiolytic potential of Celastrus oil in rat models of behaviour. Fitoterapia. 2007;78:120.

Bradwejn J, Zhou Y, Koszycki D, Shlik J. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study on the effects of Gotu Kola (Centella asiatica) on acoustic startle response in healthy subjects. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2000;20:680.

Manolov P, Marekov N. Pharmacological studies of Centranthus ruber. Eksp Med Morfol. 1981;20: 43.

Yu HS, Lee SY, Jang CG. Involvement of 5-HT1A and GABAA receptors in the anxiolytic-like effects of Cinnamomum cassia in mice. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2007;87:164.

de Almeida ER, Rafael KR, Couto GB, Ishigami AB. Anxiolytic and anticonvulsant effects on mice of flavonoids, linalool, and alpha-tocopherol presents in the extract of leaves of Cissus sicyoides L. (Vitaceae). J Biomed Biotechnol. 2009;274740.

Carvalho-Freitas MI, Costa M. Anxiolytic and sedative effects of extracts and essential oil from Citrus aurantium L, Biol Pharm Bull. 2002;25:1629.

Pultrini Ade M, Galindo LA, Costa M. Effects of the essential oil from Citrus aurantium L. in experimental anxiety models in mice. Life Sci. 2006;78: 1720.

Nahata A, Patil UK, Dixit VK. Anxiolytic activity of Evolvulus alsinoides and Convulvulus pluricaulis in rodents. Pharm Biol. 2009;47:444.

Emamghoreishi M, Khasaki M, Aazam MF. Coriandrum sativum: Evaluation of its anxiolytic effect in the elevated plus-maze. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005;96:365.

Pitsikas N, Boultadakis A, Georgiadou G, Tarantilis PA, Sakellaridis N. Effects of the active constituents of Crocus sativus L., crocins, in an animal model of anxiety. Phytomedicine. 2008;15:1135.

Hosseinzadeh H, Noraei NB. Anxiolytic and hypnotic effect of Crocus sativus aqueous extract and its constituents, crocin and safranal, in mice. Phytother Res. 2009; 23:768.

Norte MC, Cosentino RM, Lazarini CA. Effects of methyl-eugenol administration on behavioral models related to depression and anxiety in rats. Phytomedicine. 2005; 12:294.

Gilhotra N, Dhingra D. GABAergic and nitriergic modulation by curcumin for its antianxiety-like activity in mice, Brain Res. 2010;1352:167.

Guaraldo L, Chagas DA, Konno AC, Korn GP, Pfiffer T, Nasello AG. Hydroalcoholic extract and fractions of Davilla rugosa Poiret: Effects on spontaneous motor activity and elevated plus-maze behavior. J Ethnopharmacol. 2000;72:61.

Barua CC, Roy JD, Buragohain B, Barua AG, Borah P, Lahkar M. Anxiolytic effect of hydroethanolic extract of Drymaria cordata (L.) Willd. Indian J Exp Biol. 2009;47:969.

Hajhashemi V, Rabbani M, Ghanadi A, Davari E. Evaluation of antianxiety and sedative effects of essential oil of Ducrosia anethifolia in mice. Clinics. 2010;65:1037.

Shafaghi B, Naderi N, Tahmasb L, Kamalvejad M. Anxiolytic activity of Echium amoenum L. in mice. Iran J Pharm Res. 2002;1:37.

Serrano MAR, Batista ANL, Bolzani VS, Santos LA, Nogueira PJC, Nunes-de-Souza RL, Latif A, Arfan M. Anxiolytic-like effects of erythrinian alkaloids from Erythrina suberosa. Quim Nova. 2011; 01:1.

Raupp IM, Sereniki A, Virtuoso S, Ghislandi C, Cavalcanti E Silva EL, Trebien HA, Miguel OG, Andreatini R. Anxiolytic-like effect of chronic treatment with Erythrina velutina extract in the elevated plus-maze test. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008;118:295.

Rolland A, Fleurentin J, Lanhers MC, Misslin R, Mortier F. Neurophysiological effects of an extract of Eschscholzia californica Cham. (Papaveraceae). Phytother Res. 2001;15:377.

Lanhers MC, Fleurentin J, Cabalion P, Rolland A, Dorfman P, Misslin R, Pelt JM. Behavioral effects of Euphorbia hirta L.: sedative and anxiolytic properties. J Ethnopharmacol. 1990;29:189.

Rabbani M, Sajjadi SE, Vaseghi G, Jafarian A. Anxiolytic effects of Echium amoenum on the elevated plus-maze model of anxiety in mice. Fitoterapia. 2004;75:457.

Thakur VD, Mengi SA. Neuropharmacological profile of Eclipta alba (Linn.) Hassk. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005;102:23.

Ang HH, Cheang HS. Studies on the anxiolytic activity of Eurycoma longifolia Jack roots in mice. Jpn J Pharmacol. 1999;79:497.

Herrera-Ruiz M, Jiménez-Ferrer JE, De Lima TC, Avilés-Montes D, Pérez-García D, González-Cortazar M, Tortoriello J. Anxiolytic and antidepressant-like activity of a standardized extract from Galphimia glauca. Phytomedicine. 2006; 13:23.

Herrera-Arellano A, Jimenez-Ferrer E, Zamilpa A, Morales-Valdez M, Garcia-Valencia CE, Tortoriello J. Efficacy and tolerability of a standardized herbal product from Galphimia glauca on generalized anxiety disorder: A randomized, double-blind clinical trial controlled with lorazepam. Planta Med. 2007;73:713.

Dutt V, Dhar VJ, Sharma A. Antianxiety activity of Gelsemium sempervirens. Pharm Biol. 2010;48: 1091.

White HL, Scates PW, Cooper BR.Extracts of Ginkgo biloba leaves inhibit monoamine oxidase. Life Sci. 1996;58:1315.

Chermat R, Brochet D, DeFeudis FV, Drieu K. Interactions of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761), diazepam and ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate on social behavior of the rat. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1997;56:333.

Satyan KS, Jaiswal AK, Ghosal S, Bhattacharya SK. Anxiolytic activity of ginkgolic acid conjugates from Indian Ginkgo biloba. Psychopharmacology. 1998; 136:148.

Kuribara H, Weintraub ST, Yoshihama T, Maruyama Y. An anxiolytic-like effect of Ginkgo biloba extract and its constituent, ginkgolide-A, in mice. J Nat Prod. 2003; 66:1333.

Tolardo R, Zetterman L, Bitencourtt DR, Mora TC, de Oliveira FL, Biavatti MW, Amoah SK, Bürger C, de Souza MM. Evaluation of behavioral and pharmacological effects of Hedyosmum brasiliense and isolated sesquiterpene lactones in rodents. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010;128:63.

Fakeye TO, Pal A, Khanuja SP. Anxiolytic and sedative effects of extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn (family Malvaceae). Afr J Med Med Sci. 2008;37:49.

Beijamini V, Andreatini R. Effects of Hypericum perforatum and paroxetine on rat performance in the elevated T-maze. Pharmacol Res. 2003;48:199.

Coleta M, Campos MG, Cotrim MD, Proenca da Cunha A. Comparative evaluation of Melissa officinalis L., Tilia europaea L., Passiflora edulis Sims and Hypericum perforatum L. in the elevated plus maze anxiety test. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2001;34(Suppl 1):20.

Kumar V, Singh PN, Bhattacharya SK. Neurochemical studies on Indian Hypericum perforatum L. Indian J Exp Biol. 2001;39:334.

Singewald N, Sinner C, Hetzenauer A, Sartori SB, Murck H. Magnesium-deficient diet alters depression- and anxiety-related behaviour in mice  influence of desipramine and Hypericum perforatum extract. Neuropharmacology. 2004;47:1189.

Skalisz LL, Beijamini V, Andreatini R. Effect of Hypericum perforatum on marble burying by mice. Phytother Res. 2004;18:399.

Kumar A, Singh A. Protective effect of St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) extract on 72-hour sleep deprivation-induced anxiety-like behavior and oxidative damage in mice. Planta Med. 2007; 73:1358.

Okuyama E, Okamoto Y, Yamazaki M, Satake M. Pharmacologically active components of a Peruvian medicinal plant, huanarpo (Jatropha cilliata). Chem Pharm Bull. 1996;44:333.

Navarro-Garcia VM, Herrera-Ruiz M, Rojas G, Zepeda LG. Coumarin derivatives from Loeselia mexicana. Determination of the anxiolytic effect of daphnoretin on elevated plus-maze. J Mex Chem Soc. 2007;51:193.

Martinez AL, Domínguez F, Orozco S, Chávez M, Salgado H, González M, González-Trujano ME. Neuropharmacological effects of an ethanol extract of the Magnolia dealbata Zucc. leaves in mice,J Ethnopharmacol. 2006; 106:250.

Kuribara H, Kishi E, Hattori N, Okada M, Maruyama Y. The anxiolytic effect of two oriental herbal drugs in Japan attributed to honokiol from magnolia bark. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2000;52:1425.

Seo JJ, Lee SH, Lee YS, Kwon BM, Ma Y, Hwang BY, Hong JT, Oh KW. Anxiolytic-like effects of obovatol isolated from Magnolia obovata: Involvement of GABA/benzodiazepine receptors complex. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2007;31:1363.

Viola H, Wasowski C, Levi de Stein M, Wolfman C, Silveira R, Dajas F, Medina JH, Paladini AC. Apigenin, a component of Matricaria recutita flowers, is a central benzodiazepine receptors-ligand with anxiolytic effects. Planta Med. 1995;61: 213.

Bora KS, Sharma A. Evaluation of anxiolytic effect of Medicago sativa in mice. Pharmaceutical Biology. 2012;50(7): 878–882.

Bora KS, Sharma A. Isolation and estimation of anxiolytic principle from Medicago sativa (Llinn.). WJPPS. 2014; 3(3):970-984.

Bora KS, Sharma A. Bioactivity-directed separation of an anxiolytic fraction from Medicago sativa Linn. JPBMS. 2011;8(03): 1-4.

Bora KS, Dubey A. Evaluation of anti-anxiety activity of Melissa parviflora (Benth.) in rats. The Thai Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2015;39(3):70-75.

Ngo BE, Taiwe GS, Moto FC, Ngoupaye GT, Nkantchoua GC, Pelanken MM, Rakotonirina SV, Rakotonirina A. Anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, and sedative properties of the roots of Nauclea latifolia Smith in mice. Epilepsy Behav. 2009; 15:434.

Okoli CO, Ezike AC, Agwagah OC, Akah PA. Anticonvulsant and anxiolytic evaluation of leaf extracts of Ocimum gratissimum, a culinary herb. Phcog Res. 2010;2:36.

Wei XY, Yang JY, Wang JH, Wu CF. Anxiolytic effect of saponins from Panax quinquefolium in mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007;111:613.

Wolfman C, Viola H, Paladini A, Dajas F, Medina JH. Possible anxiolytic effects of chrysin, a central benzodiazepine receptor ligand isolated from Passiflora coerulea. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1994;47:1.

Akhondzadeh S, Naghavi HR, Vazirian M, Shayeganpour A, Rashidi H, Khani M. Passionflower in the treatment of generalized anxiety: A pilot double-blind randomized controlled trial with oxazepam. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2001;26:363.

Brown E, Hurd NS, McCall S, Ceremuga TE. Evaluation of the anxiolytic effects of chrysin, a Passiflora incarnata extract, in the laboratory rat. AANA J. 2007;75:333.

Movafegh A, Alizadeh R, Hajimohamadi F, Esfehani F, Nejatfar M. Preoperative oral Passiflora incarnata reduces anxiety in ambulatory surgery patients: A double-blind, placebo-controlled study.Anesth Analg. 2008;106:1728.

Grundmann O, Wang J, McGregor GP, Butterweck V. Anxiolytic activity of a phytochemically characterized Passiflora incarnata extract is mediated via the GABAergic system. Planta Med. 2008;74: 1769.

Lyca R. da Fonseca, Rafaele de A. Rodrigues, Aline de S. Ramos, Jefferson D. da Cruz, Jos ́e Luiz P. Ferreira, Jefferson Rocha de A. Silva, 5 and Ana Claudia F. Amaral. Herbal Medicinal Products from Passiflora for Anxiety: An Unexploited Potential. Scientific World Journal. 2020; 18.

Article ID 6598434.

Grundmann O, Wähling C, Staiger C, Butterweck V. Anxiolytic effects of a passion flower (Passiflora incarnata L.) extract in the elevated plus maze in mice. Pharmazie. 2009;64:63.

Viola H, Marder M, Wolfman C, Wasowski G, Medina JH, Paladini AC. Central nervous system effects of natural and synthetic flavonoids. An Assoc Quim Argent. 1998;86:229.

Cicero BFF, Trajano SFJ, de Oliveira SLE, Alexandre SJ, Esdras AUD, Rocha SE, Deusdênia LPO, de Barros VGS. Piplartine, an amide alkaloid from Piper tuberculatum, presents anxiolytic and antidepressant effects in mice. Phytomedicine. 2007;14: 605.

Bouayed J, Rammal H, Dicko A, Younos C, Soulimani R. Chlorogenic acid, a polyphenol from Prunus domestica (Mirabelle), with coupled anxiolytic and antioxidant effects. J Neurol Sci. 2007; 262:77.

Maione F, Bonito MC, Colucci M, Cozzolino V, Bisio A, Romussi G, Cicala C, Pieretti S, Mascolo N. First evidence for an anxiolytic effect of a diterpenoid from Salvia cinnabarina. Nat Prod Commun. 2009;4:469.

Lee CM, Wong HN, Chui KY, Choang TF, Hon PM, Chang HM. Miltirone, a central benzodiazepine receptor partial agonist from a Chinese medicinal herb Salvia miltiorrhiza. Neurosci Lett. 1991; 127:237.

Rabbani M, Sajjadi SE, Jafarian A, Vaseghi G. Anxiolytic effects of Salvia reuterana Boiss. on the elevated plus-maze model of anxiety in mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005; 101:100.

Chakraborty A, Amudha P, Geetha M, Singh NS. Evaluation of anxiolytic activity of the methanolic extract of Sapindus mukorossi Gaetrn. In mice. Int J Pharm Bio Sci. 2010;1:1.

Jung JW, Ahn NY, Oh HR, Lee BK, Lee KJ, Kim SY, Cheong JH, Ryu JH. Anxiolytic effects of the aqueous extract of Uncaria rhynchophylla. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006;108:193.

Andreatini R, Sartori VA, Seabra ML, Leite JR. Effect of valepotriates (valerian extract) in generalized anxiety disorder: A randomized placebo-controlled pilot study. Phytother Res. 2002;16: 650.

Houghton PJ. The scientific basis for the reputed activity in the valerian. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1999;51:505.

Murphy K, Kubin ZJ, Shepherd JN, Ettinger RH. Valeriana officinalis root extracts have potent anxiolytic effects in laboratory rats. Phytomedicine. 2010;17: 674.

Bhattacharya SK, Bhattacharya A, Sairam K, Ghosal S. Anxiolytic-antidepressant activity of Withania somnifera glycowithanolides: An experimental study. Phytomedicine. 2000;7:463.

Gupta GL, Rana AC. Effect of Withania somnifera Dunal in ethanol-induced anxiolysis and withdrawal anxiety in rats. Indian J Exp Biol. 2008;46:470.

Bora Ks, PantA. Evaluation of anxiolytic activity of W. Chinensis Merrill Leaves. The Journal of Phytopharmacology. 2018; 7(1):19-24.

Nyrkova LE. Biologically active food supplement with antidepressant effect and its production method, Russian Patent RU 2408232 C1 20110110. 2011;14.

Lee WG, Park SG, Park HG. Theanine and plant extracts for relieving anxiety and stress, Korean Patent KR 2010111935 A 20101018. 2010;15.

Ruan K, Xie J, Lin X, Xu D, Feng Y. Antianxiety Chinese medicinal preparation and its preparation method. Chinese Patent CN 1739727 A 20060301; 2006.

Durst T, Merali Z, Arnason JT, Sanchez-Vindas EP, Poveda ALJ. Anxiolytic marcgraviaceae compositions containing betulinic acid, betulinic acid derivatives, and methods of preparation and use, PCT Int Appl, WO 2002091858 A1 20021121. 2002;86.

Takeda H, Tsuji M, Hayashi M, Inazu M, Yamada T, Miyamoto J, Matsumiya T. Antidepressant/antianxiety agents containing rosmarinic acid. Japanese Patent JP 2002275061 A 20020925. 2002;7.

Bueter B. Plant extract, PCT Int Appl WO 2002007743 A2 20020131; 2002.

Cheng Y, Mei R, Chen X, Zhao J. Method for manufacturing antianxiety agent containing extract of Rumex madaio as active ingredients, Chinese Patent CN 101972310 A 20110216. 2011;10.

Aoshima H, Hamamoto K. Potentiation of GABAA receptors expressed in xenopus oocytes by perfume and phytoncid. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 1999;63:743.

Shaw D, Annett JM, Doherty B, Leslie JC. Anxiolytic effects of lavender oil inhalation on open-field behaviour in rats. Phytomedicine. 2007;14:613.

Haberlein H, Tschiersch KP, Schafer HL. Flavonoids from Leptospermum scoparium with affinity to the benzodiazepine receptor characterized by structure activity relationships and In vivo studies of a plant extract. Pharmazie. 1994;49:912.

Haberlein H, Tschiersch KP. On the occurence of methylated and methoxylated flavonoids in Leptospermum scoparium. Biochem Syst Ecol. 1998;26:97.

Ibarra A, Feuillere N, Roller M, Lesburgere E, Beracochea D. Effects of chronic administration of Melissa officinalis L. extract on anxiety-like reactivity and on circadian and exploratory activities in mice. Phytomedicine. 2010;17:397.

Badgujar VB, Surana SJ. Investigation of anxiolytic effects of Mitragyna parvifolia stem-bark extracts on animal models. Pharmacia Lett. 2009;1:172.

Deng S, West BJ, Palu AK, Zhou BN, Jensen CJ. Noni as an anxiolytic and sedative: A mechanism involving its gamma-aminobutyric adrenergic effects. Phytomedicine. 2007;14:517.

Petkov VD, Getova D, Mosharrof AH. A study of nootropic drugs for anti-anxiety action. Acta Physiol Pharmacol Bulg. 1987; 13:25.

Lolli LF, Sato CM, Romanini CV, Villas-Boas Lde B, Santos CA, de Oliveira RM. Possible involvement of GABAA-benzodiazepine receptor in the anxiolytic-like effect induced by Passiflora actinia extracts in mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007; 111:308.

Akhondzadeh S, Naghavi HR, Vazirian M, Shayeganpour A, Rashidi H, Khani M. Passionflower in the treatment of generalized anxiety: A pilot double-blind randomized controlled trial with oxazepam. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2001;26:363.

Estrada-Reyes R, Lopez-Rubalcava C, Rocha L, Heinze G, Gonzalez EAR, Martinez-Vazquez M. Anxiolytic-like and sedative actions of Rollinia mucosa: Possible involvement of the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor complex. Pharm Biol. 2010;48:70.

Hui KM, Huen MS, Wang HY, Zheng H, Sigel E, Baur R, Ren H, Li ZW, Wong JT, Xue H. Anxiolytic effect of wogonin, a benzodiazepine receptor ligand isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, Biochem Pharmacol. 2002;64: 1415.

Kasture VS, Deshmukh VK, Chopde CT. Anxiolytic and anticonvulsive activity of Sesbania grandiflora leaves in experimental animals. Phytother Res. 2002;16:455.

Ayoka AO, Akomolafe RO, Iwalewa EO, Ukponmwan OE. Studies on the anxiolytic effect of Spondias mombin L. (Anacardiaceae) extracts. Afr J Trad CAM. 2005;2:153.

Wasowski C, Marder M, Viola H, Medina JH, Paladini AC. Isolation and identification of 6-methylapigenin, a competitive ligand for the brain GABAA receptors, from Valeriana wallichii. Planta Med. 2002;68:934.