GENOME EDITING TECHNOLOGIES FOR CROP IMPROVEMENT: CURRENT STATUS AND FUTURE PROSPECTIVE

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Published: 2021-03-05

Page: 1-19


FEKEDE MESHESHA NAMO *

Department of Biotechnology, College of Natural and Computational Science, Debre Berhan University, Debre Berhan, P.O.Box 445, Ethiopia

GIRUM TEFERA BELACHEW

Department of Biotechnology, College of Natural and Computational Science, Debre Berhan University, Debre Berhan, P.O.Box 445, Ethiopia

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Gene editing has attracted massive attentions thanks to its broad applications in science, biology, and health. Genome edited crops have a plus over transgenic plants since they carry their edited DNA for the specified trait. The primary efforts to make methods for the editing of complex genomes were related to the designing of artificial enzymes as oligonucleotides that would selectively bind to specific sequences within the structure of the target DNA and have chemical groups capable of cleaving DNA. Genome editing with engineered nuclease technologies allow cleavage and rejoining of DNA molecules in specified sites to successfully modify the hereditary material of cells. Engineered nucleases contain a non-specific nuclease domain fused with a sequence-specific DNA binding domain. Such fused nucleases can precisely cleave the targeted gene and therefore the breaks are often repaired. First generation genome editing technologies that use mega nucleases, ZFNs and TALENs involve tedious procedures to realize target specificity, are labor intensive and time-consuming. With the invention of the second-generation gene editing technology CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technology was universally utilized in laboratories round the world and play a valuable and indispensable role in molecular botany, genetics and pharmacology. CRISPR/Cas9 based genome editing may be a fundamental breakthrough technique. Application of genome editing technologies in crop improvement to reinforce yield, nutritional value, disease resistance and other traits are going to be a prominent areas of labor within the future. This review focused on goes through different technologies utilized in genome editing for crop improvements with current status and future prospective.

Keywords: CRISPR, crop improvement, genome editing, review, TALENs, technology.


How to Cite

NAMO, F. M., & BELACHEW, G. T. (2021). GENOME EDITING TECHNOLOGIES FOR CROP IMPROVEMENT: CURRENT STATUS AND FUTURE PROSPECTIVE. PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, 22(15-16), 1–19. Retrieved from https://ikprress.org/index.php/PCBMB/article/view/6024

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