THE RESISTANCE OF WHITE CLOVER (Trifolium repens L.) IN GRASS MIXTURES WITH GRASSES IN THREE-CUT CULTIVATION

Main Article Content

NIKOLAY N. LAZAREV
OLGA V. KUKHARENKOVA
EVGENIYA М. KURENKOVA

Abstract

The main legume component of pasture grass mixtures is white clover. However, under conditions of increasing climate aridity, its resistance in the composition of grass stands decreases. The study aimed to determine the resistance of white clover in mixtures with various types of grasses of Russian and Dutch selection with three-time cutting of herbage. The studies were carried out in 2008-2019 in the field experiment at the Russian State Agricultural University – Moscow Agricultural Academy named after K.A. Timiryazev (Moscow, Russia). In the experiment, four grass mixtures were studied with the participation of white clover with an annual application of N180 and without the use of nitrogen fertilizers. The proportion of white clover reached 36-53% in the botanical composition of herbage with the participation of perennial ryegrass in the fourth year of life and did not exceed 22-23% in the grass mixtures with cock's foot. With the application of nitrogen fertilizers at a dose of N180, the participation of clover in the second year of herbage was only 1-27%. In the ninth year of life, its amount in herbage with the participation of perennial ryegrass without nitrogen application decreased to 13-24% and in agrophytocenoses with cock's foot and with nitrogen application to 0-14%. The yield of grass mixtures composed of grass varieties of Russian selection amounted to 4.16-5.52 t/ha of dry weight on average for 8 years, and from varieties of Dutch selection, the yield equaled 4.07-5.24 t/ha. With the introduction of nitrogen in a dose of N180 on grass/legume herbage, the yield increased by only 31% and the return on fertilizers by yield increases was low, making up 4.6-8.9 kg of dry matter per 1 kg of nitrogen.

Keywords:
White clover, grass/legume mixtures, botanical composition, longevity, productivity

Article Details

How to Cite
LAZAREV, N. N., KUKHARENKOVA, O. V., & KURENKOVAE. М. (2021). THE RESISTANCE OF WHITE CLOVER (Trifolium repens L.) IN GRASS MIXTURES WITH GRASSES IN THREE-CUT CULTIVATION. PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, 22(27-28), 1-8. Retrieved from https://ikprress.org/index.php/PCBMB/article/view/6176
Section
Original Research Article

References

Laidlaw AS, Teuber N. Temperate forage grass-legume mixtures: Advances and perspectives. In: Proceedings XIX International Grassland Congress, Sao Paulo, Brazil. 2001;85-92.

Peeters A, Parente G, Le Gall A. Temperate legumes: Key-species for sustainable temperate mixtures. Proc. 21st General Meeting of the European Grassland Federation, Badajoz, Spain. Grassland Science in Europe. 2006;11:205-220.

Reynolds SG, Frame J. Grasslands: Developments, opportunities, perspectives. Rome: FAO; 2005.

Lüscher A, Mueller-Harvey I, Soussana JF, Rees RM, Peyraud JL. Potential of legume-based grassland-livestock systems in Europe: A review. Grass and Forage Science. 2014;69:206-228.

Guy C, Hennessy D, Gilliland TJ, Coughlan F, McCarthy B. Perennial ryegrass ploidy and white clover: How do they affect sward performance? Grassland Science in Europe. 2018;23:75-77.

Hart AL. Physiology. In: Baker MJ, Williams WM, Eds. White clover. Wallingford: CAB International. 1987;125-151.

Sheaffer CC, Mathison RD. Forage legumes. Clovers, birdsfoot trefoil, cicer milkvetch, crownvetch, sainfoin and alfalfa. Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station. Station Bulletin 597; 1993.

Lazarev NN, Prudnikov AD, Kurenkova EM, Starodubtseva AM. Mnogoletnie bobovye travy v Nechernozeme [Perennial legumes in the Non-Black Earth Region]. Moscow: RGAU-MSHA imeni K.A. Timiryazeva; 2017.

Harris SL, Auldist MJ, Clark DA, Jansen EB. Effects of white clover content in the diet on herbage intake, milk production and milk composition of New Zealand dairy cows housed indoors. Journal of Dairy Research. 1998;65:389-400.

Piskovatskaya RG, Makaeva AM. Selektsiya klevera polzuchego (Trifolium repens L.) na produktivnost i ustoichivost v pastbishchnykh travostoyakh [Breeding of creeping clover (Trifolium repens L.) for productivity and resistance in pasture herbage]. Adaptivnoe kormoproizvodstvo. 2017;4:76–81.

Rhodes I, Collins RP, Evans DR. Breeding white clover for tolerance to low temperature and grazing stress. Euphytica. 1994;77:239-242.

Fisher A, Fisher А, Wilman D. Effect of interval between harvests and spring applied fertilizer N on the growth of white clover in mixed swards. Grass and Forage Science. 1995;50:162-171.

Chapman D, Lee J, Rossi L, Edwards G, Pinxterhuis J, Minnee E. White clover: The forgotten component of high-producing pastures? Anim. Prod. Sci. 2017;57:1269–1276.

Dineen M, Delaby L, Gilliland T, McCarthy B. Meta-analysis of the effect of white clover inclusion in perennial ryegrass swards on milk production. Journal of Dairy Science. 2018;101:1804–1816.

McClearn B, Gilliland TJ, Delaby L, Guy C, Dineen M, Coughlan F, McCarthy B. Milk production per cow and per hectare of spring-calving dairy cows grazing swards differing in Lolium perenne L. ploidy and Trifolium repens L. Journal of Dairy Science. 2019;102:8571–8585.

Egan M, Galvin N, Hennessy D. Incorporating white clover (Trifolium repens L.) into perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) swards receiving varying levels of nitrogen fertilizer: Effects on milk and herbage production. Journal of Dairy Science. 2018;101(4):3412-3427.

Blagoveshchenskii GV, Shtyrkhunov VD, Kononchuk VV. Energo-proteinovyi potentsial trav i furazhnykh kultur [Energy and protein potential of grasses and forage crops]. Kormoproizvodstvo. 2016;2:21- 23.

Williams TA, Abberton MT, Rhodes I. Performance of white clover varieties combined in blends and alone when grown with perennial ryegrass under sheep and cattle grazing. Grass & Forage Science. 2003;58(1):90-93.

Ledgard S, Schils R, Eriksen J, Luo J. Environmental impacts of grazed clover/grass pastures. Ir. J. Agric. Food Res. 2009;48:209–226.

Carlsson G, Huss-Danell K. Nitrogen fixation in perennial forage legumes in the field. Plant and Soil. 2003;253:353-372.

Humphreys MO. Genetic improvement of forage crops – past, present and future. Journal of Agricultural Science. 2005;30:288-296.