EVALUATION OF GRAFTING USING CUCURBIT INTERSPECIFIC HYBRIDS TO CONTROL FUSARIUM WILT IN CUCUMBER

Main Article Content

NOUR EL-HOUDA A. REYAD
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8048-3636
SAYED FATHEY EL-SAYED
SAMAH NAGUIB AZOZ

Abstract

Grafting is a safe agro-technique used to boost tolerance against biotic and abiotic stresses and increase crop yield and quality. This study was undertaken to control cucumber Fusarium wilt through grafting onto novel Cucurbit interspecific hybrids and assess their effect on nutrients, defense enzymes in cucumber, and root characteristics. Four crosses were done between two lines of each of Bottle Gourd (Lagenaria siceraria), Winter squash (Cucurbita maxima), Winter squash (C. moshata), and Wild cucumber (C. zambinus). The commercial hybrid rootstock Supper Shintosa was also considered. Results indicated that all hybrid rootstocks, except Bottle Gourd, exhibited a significant decrease in Fusarium wilt severity compared with non-grafted control. Plant height and shoot dry weight of grafted plant were higher than those of the nongrafted control with best results for grafting onto C. moshata. The macro (N, P, K, Ca, and Mg%) and micro (Fe and Zn ppm) nutrient contents in the leaf of grafted plants were more than those of the nongrafted control. The highest macro and micronutrient contents were observed due to grafting onto C. moshata followed by C. maxima. Grafting of cucumber onto resistant rootstocks exhibited a significant increase in activity of peroxidases and polyphenoloxidase enzymes. Furthermore, grafting onto all rootstocks, except C. zambinus, caused an increase in root diameter more than the nongrafted control. Grafted cucumber onto C. maxima rootstock showed the best values in terms of diameter of the root, thickness of the cortex, dimension of vascular bundle, mean diameter of the vessel, and the pith over the nongrafted control.

Keywords:
Cucurbitaceae, rootstock, Fusarium oxysporum, interspecific hybrid, root anatomy, antioxidant enzymes, nutrients

Article Details

How to Cite
REYAD, N. E.-H. A., EL-SAYED, S. F., & AZOZ, S. N. (2021). EVALUATION OF GRAFTING USING CUCURBIT INTERSPECIFIC HYBRIDS TO CONTROL FUSARIUM WILT IN CUCUMBER. PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, 22(37-38), 50-63. Retrieved from https://ikprress.org/index.php/PCBMB/article/view/6486
Section
Original Research Article

References

FAO. United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. Statistics at FAO; 2019. Available:http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/QC/visualize

Liu X, Li Y, Ren X, Chen B, Zhang Y, Shen C, Wang F, Wu D. Long-term greenhouse cucumber production alters soil bacterial community structure. J. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 2020;306–321.

Xiao X, Cheng Z, Lv J, Xie J, Ma N, Yu J. A green garlic (Allium sativum L.) based intercropping system reduces the strain of continuous mono-cropping in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) by adjusting the micro-ecological environment of soil. Peer J. 2019; 7-e7267.

Martyn RD, Vakalounakis DJ. Fusarium wilts of greenhouse cucurbits: melon, watermelon, and cucumber. In: Gullino ML, Katan J, Garibaldi A, editors. Fusarium wilts of greenhouse vegetable and ornamental crops. APS PRESS, St. Paul, MN. 2012;298–305.

Panth M, Hassler SC and FB Gurel Methods for Management of Soilborne Diseases in Crop Production. Agriculture. 2020;16.

Romanazzi G, Mancini V, Feliziani E, Servili A, Endeshaw S, Neri D. Impact of alternative fungicides on grape downy mildew control and vine growth and development. Plant Dis. 2016;739–748.

Papadaki AM, Bletsos FA, Eleftherohorinos IG, Menexes G, Lagopodi AL. Effectiveness of seven commercial rootstocks against Verticillium wilt and their effects on growth, yield, and fruit quality of tomato. Crop Prot. 2017; 25–31.

King SR, Davis AR, Zhang X, Crosby K. Genetics, breeding, and selection of rootstocks for Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae. Sci. Hort. 2010;106–111.

Sakata Y, Ohara T, Sugiyama M. The history of melon and cucumber grafting in Japan Acta Hort. 2008;767:217-228.

Belmonte-Ureña LJ, Garrido-Cardenas JA, Camacho-Ferre F. Analysis of World Research on Grafting in Horticultural Plants. HortScience. 2020; 1112–120.

Peil RA. Enxertia na produção de mudas de hortaliças. Ciência Rural. 2003;1169–1177.

Monteiro GC, Goto R, Minatel IO, de Sousa da Silva E, da Silva Vianello EG and GPP Lima Grafting, agrochemicals, and oxidative enzymes as a factor for plant biotic resistance. In: Ansari, R.A., Mahmood, I. (Eds.), Plant Health under Biotic Stress, Volume 1: Organic Strategies. Springer Nature, Singapore. 2019;37–59.

Li YJ, Liang GY, Liu XJ, Liu DC, Fang C. Proteomic study on grafted and non-grafted cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Acta Hort. Sinica. 2009;1147-1152.

Guan W, Zhao X, Hassell R, Thies J. Defense Mechanisms Involved in Disease Resistance of Grafted Vegetables. HortScience. 2012;47:164–170.

Jensen PJ, Rytter J, Detwiler EA, Travis JW, McNellis TW. Rootstock effects on gene expression patterns in apple tree scions. Plant Molecular Biology. 2003;53: 493–511.

Zhou B, Gao Y, Lin G, Fu Y. Relationship between disease resistance and electrolytic leakage, proline content and PAL activity in grafted eggplant. Acta Hort. Sinica. 1998; 25:300–302.

Zhang ZJ, Wang YM, Long LK, Lin Y, Pang J, Liu B. Tomato rootstock effects on gene expression patterns in eggplant scions. Russ. J. Plant Physiol. 2008;55:93–100.

Farhadi A, Aroeii H, Nemati H, Salehi R, Giuffrida F. The Effectiveness of different rootstocks for improving yield and growth of cucumber cultivated hydroponically in a greenhouse. Horticulturae. 2016;1-7.

Lower RL, Edwards MD. Cucumber breeding. In: M.J. Basset (ed.). Breeding vegetable crops. AVI, Westport, Conn. 1986;173–207.

Staub JE, Fredrich L, Marty TL. Electrophoretic variation in cross-compatible wild diploid species of Cucumis. Can. J. Bot. 1987;792–798.

Bowley SR, Taylor NL. Introgressive hybridization. In: B.R. Christie (ed.). CRC handbook of plant science in agriculture. Boca Raton, Fla, CRC Press. 1987;23–59.

Chen JF, Adelberg J. Interspecific Hybridization in Cucumis—Progress, Problems, and Perspectives Hortscience. 2000;35:11-15.

Kawaide T. Utilization of rootstocks in cucurbits production in Japan. Jap. Agric., Res. Quarterly (JARQ). 1985;284-289.

Hao Z, Christie P, Qin L, Wang C, Li X. Control of Fusarium wilt of cucumber seedlings by inoculation with an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus. J. Plant Nutr. 2005; 1961-1974.

Chiang KS, Liu HI, Bock CH. A discussion on disease severity index values. Part I: warning on inherent errors and suggestions to maximize accuracy. Annals of Applied Biol. 2017;139-154.

Wyciszkiewicz M, Saeid A, Chojnacka K. In situ solubilization of phosphorus bearing raw materials by Bacillus megaterium, Engineering in life science. 2017;749- 758.

Helrich, K. Official Methods of Analysis, 15th ed.; Association of Official Agricultural Chemist: Arlington, VA, USA. 1990;1:673.

Beauchamp C, Fridovich I. Superoxide dismutase: Improved assays and an assay applicable to acrylamide gels. Anal. Biochem. 1971;276–287.

Sinha A Colorimetric assay of Catalase. Ann. Biochem. 1972;2-5.

Chance B, Maehly AC. Assay of catalase and peroxidases. Methods in Enzymology. 1955;764-775.

Kunwar KB, Khan PA. Peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase in excised ragi (Elensince corcana) leaves during senescence. Indian J. Exp. Biol. 1982;412-416.

Mohammed IA, Guma AN. Anatomical diversity among certain genera of Family Cucurbitaceae. IJRSB. 2015;85-91.

SNEDECOR, G. A. – COCHRAN, W. G. Statistical Method. Iowa State Univ. Press, Ames; 1976.

Fisher RA. Statistical Methods for Research Workers. In: Kotz S., Johnson N.L. (eds) Breakthroughs in Statistics. Springer Series in Statistics (Perspectives in Statistics). Springer, New York, NY; 1992. Available:https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4612-4380-9_6

Giné A, López-Gómez M, Vela MD, Ornat C, Talavera M, Verdejo-Lucas S, Sorribas FJ. Thermal requirements and population dynamics of root-knot nematodes on cucumber and yield losses under protected cultivation. Plant Pathol. 2014;1446– 1453.

Rostami F, Alaei H, Reza HK, Abad AB. Controlling the root and stem rot of cucumber, caused by Pythium aphanidermatum, using resistance cultivars and grafting onto the cucurbit rootstocks. Azarian J. Agric. 2015;19–24.

Davis AR, Perkins-Veazie P, Sakata Y, López-Galarza S, Maroto JV, Lee SG, Huh YC, Sun Z, Miguel A, King SR, Cohen R, Lee JM. Cucurbit grafting. Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. 2008;50–74.

Yamaguchi T, Iwadate Y. The adaptability of several cucurbit plants for use as rootstocks to prevent cucumber black root rot caused by Phomopsis sclerotioides. Annu. Rep. Soc. Plant Prot. North Japan. 2009;96–101.

Pavlou GC, Vakalounakis DJ, Ligoxigakis EK. Control of root and stem rot of cucumber, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-cucumerinum, by grafting onto resistant rootstocks, Plant Dis. 2002;379-382.

Ruiz JM, Belakbir A, López-Cantarero I, Romero L. Leaf-macronutrient content and yield in grafted melon plants: a model to evaluate the influence of rootstock genotype. Sci. Hortic. 1997;227–234.

Aslam W, Noor RS, Hussain F, Ameen M, Ullah S, Chen V. Evaluating morphological growth, yield, and postharvest fruit quality of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) grafted on cucurbitaceous rootstocks. Agriculture. 2020;101-120.

Ceylan S, Alan O, Elmaci OL. Effects of Grafting on Nutrient Element Content and Yield in Watermelon. Ege Univ. Ziraat. Derg. 2008;67-74.

Leonardi C, Giuffrida F. Variation of plant growth and macronutrient uptake in grafted tomatoes and eggplants on three different rootstocks. European Journal of Horticultural Sciences. 2006;97–101.

Zhu J, Bie ZL, Huang Y, Han XY. Effect of grafting on the growth and ion concentrations of cucumber seedlings under NaCl stress. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition. 2008;54:895–902.

Qi HY, Liu YF, Li D, Li TL. Effects of grafting on nutrient absorption, hormone content in xylem exudation, and yield of melon (Cucumis melo L.). Plant Physiology Communications. 2006;199–202.

Sun Y, Wang M, Li Y, Gu Z, Ling N, Shen Q, Guo Sh. Wilted cucumber plants infected by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum don’t suffer from water shortage. Annals of Botany. 2017;427–436.

Savvas D, Collab G, Rouphael Y, Schwarzd D. Amelioration of heavy metal and nutrient stress in fruit vegetables by grafting. Scientia Horticulturae. 2010;156-161.

Doubnerova V, Ryslava H. Enzyme regulation during Plant Stress. Biochem Anal Biochem. 2013;2-3.

Nahar K, Hasanuzzaman M, Alam MM, Rahman A, Suzuki T, Fujita M. Polyamine and nitric oxide crosstalk: antagonistic effects on cadmium toxicity in mung bean plants through upregulating the metal detoxification, antioxidant defense, and methylglyoxal detoxification systems. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2016;245–255.

Mohamed H, EL-Hady Mansour AA, El-Rheem M, El-Samawaty A. Association of oxidative stress components with resistance to flax powdery mildew. Trop Plant Pathol. 2012;386–392.

Siddique Z, Akhtar KP, Hameed A, Sarwar N, Imran Ul-Haq Khan SA. Biochemical alterations in leaves of resistant and susceptible cotton genotypes infected systemically by cotton leaf curl Burewala virus. J. Plant Interact. 2014;702-711.

Zehra A, Meena M, Dubey MK, Aamir M, Upadhyay RS. Synergistic effects of plant defense elicitors and Trichoderma harzianum on enhanced induction of antioxidant defense system in tomato against Fusarium wilt disease. Bot. Stud. 2017;58-44.

Lebeda A, Kristkova E, Dolezal K. Peroxidase isozyme polymorphism in Cucurbita pepo cultivars with various morphotypes and different levels of field resistance to powdery mildew. Scientia Horticulturae. 1999;103–112.

Mishra NP, Mishra RK, Singhal GS. Changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes during exposure of intact wheat leaves to strong visual light at different temperatures in the presence of protein synthesis inhibitors. Plant Physiology. 1995; 903–910.

Shim IS, Momose Y, Yamamoto A, Kim DW, Usui K. Inhibition of catalase activity by oxidative stress and its relationship to salicylic acid accumulation in plants. Plant Growth Regulation. 2003;285–292.

Salama M, Azza A, Mona ElW. Morphological and anatomical studies of grafting cucumber onto three different wild rootstocks grown under salinity in the Nutrient Film Technique system. International Journal of Advanced Research. 2016;583-595.

Lima LKS, Santos ISD, Goncalves ZS, Soares TL, De Jesus ON, Girardi EA. Grafting height does not affect Fusarium wilt control or horticultural performance of Passiflora gibertii N.E.Br. rootstock Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências. 2018; 6445-6455.

Hanafy S Rania, El-Mahdy M Omima. Mitigation of Fusarium wilt disease of Vicia faba using Artemisia monosperma extract. The Egyptian Society of Experimental Biology. 2018;37-49.