PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY https://ikprress.org/index.php/PCBMB <p><strong>PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY (ISSN: 0972-2025)</strong> journal is published by I. K. Press from Volume 14. <strong>PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY</strong> is the official journal of <strong>Society for Biology and Biotechnology</strong>, Kannankurichi-P.O Salem-636 008, Tamil Nadu State, India. This is a peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal. This journal follows OPEN access policy. All published articles can be freely downloaded from the journal website.</p> <p><strong>The Scope of Plant Cell Biotechnology and Molecular Biology (PCBMB) (ISSN: 0972-2025) includes</strong><br />1. Plant Science related research (including all branches of Plant Science like Agronomy, Algology and Phycology, Bacteriology, Bryology, Mycology, Paleobotany, Plant Anatomy and Physiology, Pteridology, etc)<br />2. Cell Biology (including all branches of Cell Biology)<br />3. Biotechnology (including all branches of Biotechnology)<br />4. Molecular Biology (including all branches of Molecular Biology)<br />This international English-language journal includes papers exploring both basic and applied aspects of the above-mentioned areas.</p> International Knowledge Press en-US PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY 0972-2025 Soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill): A Multipurpose Legume Shaping Our World https://ikprress.org/index.php/PCBMB/article/view/8643 <p>Soybean (<em>Glycine max</em> L. Merrill), indigenous to East Asia, has assumed a pivotal role as a global substantial crop, substantially contributing to food security, a wide spectrum of product lines and rigorous scientific exploration. This unassuming legume, bearing the scientific nomenclature <em>Glycine max</em> L. Merrill, has transcended its East Asian origins to become a cornerstone in supplying 25% of the world's edible oil and approximately two-thirds of the global livestock protein concentrate. The significance of soybeans extends beyond their utility in direct human consumption; they serve as an indispensable component in crop rotation, thereby fostering soil health and averting erosion. This comprehensive review embarks on a profound exploration of soybeans, encompassing their historical significance, botanical attributes, geographical distribution, climatic influence and reproductive biology. Furthermore, it provides a detailed account of advancements in genetic enhancement and biotechnological applications within soybean breeding, emphasizing the importance of transgenic soybean production. Disease resistance efforts, including the identification of resistance loci, markers and mutations, are thoroughly discussed, with a specific focus on the improvement of Indian soybean varieties.</p> Riya Mishra M. K. Tripathi R. S. Sikarwar Yogendra Singh Niraj Tripathi Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-04-15 2024-04-15 25 3-4 17 37 10.56557/pcbmb/2024/v25i3-48643 Estimation of Correlation Coefficient Analysis for Yield and Component Traits in Field Pea (Pisum sativum L.) https://ikprress.org/index.php/PCBMB/article/view/8636 <p>The present investigation entitled “Estimation of Correlation Coefficient Analysis for Yield and Component Traits in field pea (<em>Pisum sativum </em>L.)” for 10 characters. The experiment comprising of 23 genotypes of pea were grown in a Randomized Block Design (RBD), with three replications at Research Farm, Department of Genetics &amp; Plant Breeding, Post Graduate College, Ghazipur, during <em>rabi </em>season of 2017-2018, plant to plant and row to row distance was kept 10 cm and 45 cm, respectively. The maximum positive and significant phenotypic correlation coefficient (0.834) was found between seed yield per plant, biological yield per plant. Positive and significant correlations were observed between seed yield per plant and number of pods per plant, plant height. Positive and significant correlations were also recorded between biological yield per plant and plant height, number of pods per plant. Similarly number of pods per plant had positive and significant correlation with plant height.</p> Parth Vivek Kashyap Shivendra Pratap Singh Shweta Dikshit Pooshpendra Singh Dixit Navneet Singh Saurabh Raj Pandey Budhesh Pratap Singh Dharm Veer Singh Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-04-09 2024-04-09 25 3-4 13 16 10.56557/pcbmb/2024/v25i3-48636 Influence of Biofertigation and Crude Edible Oils Application on Yield Attributing Characters and Yield of Papaya (Carica papaya L.) cv. Red Lady https://ikprress.org/index.php/PCBMB/article/view/8629 <p>Various organic substances have demonstrated effectiveness in sustaining soil and plant health, thereby enhancing growth, yield, and quality across different crops. The experiment was carried out to know the influence of biofertigation and crude edible oils application on yield attributing characters and yield of papaya (<em>Carica Papaya </em>L.) cv. Red Lady at Department of Fruit Science, Dr. YSRHU-College of Horticulture, Venkataramanannagudem, West Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh during 2021-22 and 2022-23. The experiment was laid out in a Factorial RBD with three replications consisted of two factors <em>viz</em>., biofertilizers at three levels (B<sub>1</sub>: 5 ml each of NFB + PSB + KRB; B<sub>2</sub>: 2.5 ml each of NFB + PSB + KRB; B<sub>3</sub>: Without biofertilizer) and crude edible oil at five levels (C<sub>1</sub>: Ground nut oil @0.5%; C<sub>2</sub>: Castor oil @0.5%; C<sub>3</sub>: Mustard oil @0.5%; C<sub>4</sub>: Ground nut oil + Castor oil + Mustard oil @0.5%; C<sub>5</sub>: No crude oil spray) with fifteen treatment combinations. Among the treatments studied, the results revealed that minimum days to first flowering, fruit initiation height, days to first harvest, maximum number of fruits per plant, fruit length, fruit girth, average fruit weight, fruit yield per plant and fruit yield hectare were registered in the plants applied with 5 ml each of biofertilizers NFB+ PSB + KRB along with ground nut oil + castor oil + mustard oil @0.5% (B<sub>1</sub>C<sub>4</sub>).</p> Ch. Sunitha M. Madhavi P. Vinaya Kumar Reddy P. Subbaramamma K. Sasikala V. Sekhar Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-04-05 2024-04-05 25 3-4 1 12 10.56557/pcbmb/2024/v25i3-48629 Morphological Characterization and Assessment of Genetic Variability, Heritability and Genetic Advance in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) https://ikprress.org/index.php/PCBMB/article/view/8626 <p>Genetic based knowledge of different growth traits including morphological, physiological and developmental play’s fundamental role in the improvement of wheat. Genetic divergence allows superior recombinants which are essential in any crop development project. The present investigation was involving forty-four genotypes were assessed for 13 morphological traits undertaken to study the genetic variability, heritability (bs), genetic advance, genetic advance as percent of mean analysis. Among the genotypes, almost all the traits exhibited highly significant variation. The higher extent of genotypic (GCV) as well as phenotypic coefficients of variation (PCV) were noticed for number of productive tillers per plant and grain yield per plant indicted high degree of variability in these quantitative traits and suggested the possibility of yield improvement through these traits. High heritability (in broad sense) estimates were obtained highest for biological yield per plant, spike length, grain yield per plant, protein content, 1000 grain weight, plant height, productive tillers per plant, days to maturity and spikelets per spike including that these traits are mainly controlled by the genetic factor and selection based on these factors will be rewarding. Moderate estimates of genetic advance were obtained for two traits <em>viz.,</em> plant height and biological yield per plant. A suitable combination of these traits can be used for development of high yielding genotypes. For plant height and the number of grains per spike, there was a combination of high heritability and moderate genetic advance. As a result, these qualities are controlled by additive gene action and should be chosen for further development through the use of pedigree breeding.</p> Shivendra Pratap Singh Pooran Chand Vishal Singh Anjali Singh Ankaj Tiwari Akash Singh Manoj Kumar Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-04-04 2024-04-04 25 3-4 120 128 10.56557/pcbmb/2024/v25i1-28626 Characterization of Chickpea Genotypes for Qualitative and Quantitative Traits in the Bundelkhand Region https://ikprress.org/index.php/PCBMB/article/view/8615 <p>About 550 germplasm accessions of chickpea were undertaken to evaluate 20 morphological traits using DUS guidelines given by PPV &amp; FRA. And they are used to determine the relationships among yield and yield attributes using direct and indirect selection parameters. Out of 20 DUS traits, seven traits were dimorphic, 10 traits were found trimorphic and the remaining three traits showed polymorphism. Significant genetic variations were observed among the genotypes for days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, leaf-let size, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, primary branches, peduncle length, plant height, secondary branches, 100 seed weight, seed yield per plant. High PCV, GCV, heritability and genetic advance are obtained for secondary branches, pods per plant, seeds per pod, 100 seed weight and seed yield. Correlation studies revealed that seed yield was positively and significantly correlated with leaf-let size, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, primary branches, peduncle length, plant height, secondary branches, 100 seed weight. The path coefficient analysis based on seed yield, as a dependent variable, showed that the number of pods per plant had the greatest direct effect on seed yield (0.68) followed by 100 seed weight (0.561) and the number of seeds per pod (0.42). Both correlation and path analysis indicated that pods per plant and the 100 seed weight were the major direct contributors to seed yield.</p> Sanjay H. B S K Chaturvedi Shailendra Kumar Anshuman Singh Harish J Lakshmeesha R. Dilip Panwar Manjunatha M. Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-03-29 2024-03-29 25 3-4 110 119 10.56557/pcbmb/2024/v25i1-28615 Effect of Correlation and Path Analysis in Brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) https://ikprress.org/index.php/PCBMB/article/view/8611 <p>The present investigation was carried out in thirty two genotypes of brinjal with a view to estimate the extent of variability, analysis of variance and genetic divergence. The experiment was conducted in Randomized Block Design with three replications at Department of Vegetable Science, Acharya Narendra Deva University of Agriculture and Technology Narendra Nagar, (Kumarganj), Ayodhya (U.P.), during Kharif, 2020-21. Each treatment consisted of twelve plant in two rows, having spacing of 60 cm x 50 cm with net plot size of 1.2 m x 3.00 m<sup>2</sup>. The magnitudes of genotypic correlation was higher than the phenotypic correlation coefficients for all the character combinations. The most important trait, total fruit yield per plant had exhibited highly significant and positive phenotypic correlation with average fruit weight (0.747), number of fruits per plant (0.672) and fruit circumference (0.468) at both phenotypic and genotypic levels. Positive direct effect on total fruit yield was exerted by total sugars (0.474), average fruit weight (0.396), fruit circumference (0.358), number of fruits per plant (0.254), plant height (0.242), fruit polar length (0.194) and day to 50 % flowering (0.168). The higher magnitude of positive direct effect on total fruit yield was exerted by total sugars (0.474), average fruit weight (0.396), fruit circumference (0.358), number of fruits per plant (0.254), plant height (0.242), fruit polar length (0.194), day to 50 % flowering (0.168).</p> Akhil Kumar Chaudhary Gulab Chand Yadav Lalu Prasad Agnivesh Yadav Rakesh Kumar Lav Kumar Ramesh Rajbhar Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-03-28 2024-03-28 25 3-4 100 109 10.56557/pcbmb/2024/v25i1-28611 Metabolomics and Metabolic Engineering for Crop Improvement: Current Trends and Future Prospects https://ikprress.org/index.php/PCBMB/article/view/8607 <p>Metabolomics is a rising field within the realm of “omics,” focusing on the detection and measurement of metabolites and chemical markers associated with cellular regulatory mechanisms across various biological organisms. The exploration of metabolomic control in plant life plays a imperative role in comprehending their ability to adapt, acclimate, and defend against environmental pressures by generating a diverse array of metabolites. Furthermore, the application of metabolomics holds promise in the characterization of plant traits, offering significant prospective for amalgamation into genome editing initiatives aimed at advancing the development of enhanced, future-generation crops. The forefront technologies have introduced economical and high-capacity methods to molecularly analyze the operation of cells or organisms. Cutting-edge analytical methods in metabolomics, such as nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), liquid chromatography mass-spectrometry (LC-MS), gas chromatography-mass (GC-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) have accelerated metabolic profiling. This review provides an insights into the latest tools in plant metabolomics for enhancing crops and process of plant metabolome research, engaging in plant mechanisms especially for tolerating biotic and abiotic stresses. This review also provide potential approaches to metabolomics through metabolic engineering such as miRNA- and RNAi-Mediated Metabolic Engineering, Genome editing mediated metabolic Engineering etc</p> Shakti Singh Abhishek V Karadagi Gangadhara Doggalli Rahana S.N. Manoj B P Rajan Singh Mubeen Bal veer Singh Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-03-27 2024-03-27 25 3-4 77 99 10.56557/pcbmb/2024/v25i1-28607 Impact of Nano-fertilizers on Productivity and Profitability of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) https://ikprress.org/index.php/PCBMB/article/view/8602 <p>Yield stagnation, multi-nutrient deficiencies coupled with reduced fertilizer-use efficiency have emerged as major challenges to the food-systems of South Asia. Modern scientific tools to enhance nutrient use efficiencies along with augmented crop yields became utmost necessity to sustain food security of developing world. In this context, a field study was undertaken to understand the influence of numerous nano-fertilizers on wheat productivity, profitability and nutrient-use efficiency. Results revealed that application of 100% NPK coupled with foliar-spray of Nano- N + P + K + Zn increased grain and straw yield by 29.8 % and 13.7 %, respectively over 100% NPK. The crop fetched a net return of ₹ 72141.50 with B:C ratio of 5.51 with 75% NPK + nano-N. As a result, the wheat crop produced when Nano-N + 75% NPK was applied produced a greater yield (grain, straw, and biological), as well as financial gains.</p> Bal Veer Singh N.S. Rana Krashankant Sharma Anupama Verma Avinash Kumar Rai Nitesh Kumar Singh Shivam Kumar Pandey Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-03-23 2024-03-23 25 3-4 69 76 10.56557/pcbmb/2024/v25i1-28602 Facile Synthesis of Graphene–Metal Nanocomposites with Tephrosia Purpurea for Anticancer and Antimicrobial Activity https://ikprress.org/index.php/PCBMB/article/view/8597 <p>The research is focused on screening various bioactive extracts from <em>Tephrosia purpurea</em> plant leaf for the onward synthesis of nanomaterial and formation of Grephene-Ag nanocomposite for their biological applications. The aerial parts of this plant are comprised of primary and secondary metabolites. Its latex contains many important compounds such as Phenolics, Flavonides, and Terpenes, etc. <em>Tephrosia purpurea</em> is used as a traditional medicine to cure different problems of the digestive and respiratory tract. The aerial parts of this plant show immense antifungal and antimicrobial pursuits. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized from methanol extract of aerial parts of the <em>Tephrosia Purpurea</em>. These nanoparticles were reacted with lab synthesized Graphene to form Plant-Silver-Graphene nanocomposites. The characterization of plant extract, extract-mediated Ag-nanoparticles, and graphene-metal nanocomposites was carried out by different techniques like FTIR, UV, EDX &amp; SEM. FTIR &amp; UV spectra peaks were found in the ranges already reported. EDX analysis shows the percentage of the elements matching the reported data. SEM shows similar ranges of nanoparticle sizes as found in the research papers. Moreover, anticancer activities of plant-Ag-graphene nanocomposites were done &amp; comparison was made with parent materials. The results were remarkable as plant-Ag-graphene nanocomposites showed better anticancer activities than the nanoparticles and plant extract.</p> Kfait Ullah Khan G. Malathi Wongamthing Sanjay Hazarika Okram Ricky Devi Th. Nengparmoi Bibek Laishram T Senthilkumar Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-03-21 2024-03-21 25 3-4 53 68 10.56557/pcbmb/2024/v25i1-28597 Correlation and Path Analysis for Yield and Yield Contributing Traits in Advance Generation of Blackgram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper) https://ikprress.org/index.php/PCBMB/article/view/8595 <p>Despite being a short-duration legume crop with excellent nutritional value, blackgram is rarely grown extensively because of various obstacles. In light of this, the research sought to understand the nature and strength of the relationship between yield and related qualities for efficient production, with the goal of developing blackgram genotypes with greater adaptability, genetic variability, and high yielding potential. Fifty one genotypes derived from seventeen inter-varietal crosses with variable plant and pod characteristics were evaluated in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications during <em>kharif </em>2018 at Palampur. Significant differences were observed among all genotypes for all the characters. Seed yield per plant showed positive association towards plant height, pods per plant, biological yield per plant and harvest index. The positive association was mainly due to direct effects of these traits with seed yield per plant and also indirectly contributed for positive association with other traits. Therefore, these traits provide an important criterion of selection procedures for achieving enhanced performance of blackgram genotypes for higher yield.</p> Kulveer Singh Dhillon R.K. Mittal V.K. Sood H.K. Chaudhary Khushwinder Kaur Shubham Verma Nimit Kumar Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-03-19 2024-03-19 25 3-4 45 52 10.56557/pcbmb/2024/v25i1-28595 Horticultural Innovations Elevating Crop Yields and Agricultural Sustainability for a Flourishing Future https://ikprress.org/index.php/PCBMB/article/view/8560 <p>Advancements in horticultural technologies and practices are critical for meeting global food security needs while ensuring environmental sustainability. This paper examines recent innovations that enhance crop yields and resource efficiency in horticulture. Key areas explored include high-tech greenhouse agriculture, precision agriculture techniques, improved irrigation systems, biofertilizers and biopesticides, breeding of resilient cultivars, and vertical farming. Intensive greenhouse production with supplemental lighting, climate control, hydroponics and automation enables year-round vegetable and fruit yields up to 20 times higher than open-field methods. Precision agriculture leverages data analytics, sensors and AI for optimized inputs and cultivation decisions per sub-field zone. Upgraded irrigation systems like drip lines and computerized scheduling curtail water usage. Organic biofertilizers and biopesticides derived from microbes, plants and minerals boost soil health and impede pests while avoiding chemical residues. Newly bred cultivars feature accelerated growth, improved taste and nutrition, and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Meanwhile, vertical farms multilayer indoor cropping to magnify yields in small footprints. Further integration of these and other cutting-edge horticultural technologies can increase global food production without environmental sacrifice. This necessitates greater public and private sector investments paired with institutional support.</p> Sandeep Indurthi Ira Sarma Dokka Vara Vinod Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-02-27 2024-02-27 25 3-4 22 44 10.56557/pcbmb/2024/v25i1-28560 Effect of Different Doses of Nutrients on Vegetative, Reproductive and Biochemical Parameters of Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L.) cv. F1 Amazing Hybrid https://ikprress.org/index.php/PCBMB/article/view/8559 <p>Cauliflower (<em>Brassica oleracea</em> L.) is a well-known winter vegetable crop which belongs to Cruciferae family. Cauliflower needs a large amount of macronutrients as they play role in the development and growth of curd. Therefore, a field experiment was executed to check the different sources of nutrients on vegetative, reproductive and biochemical parameters. Seven different concentrations of macronutrients i.e., Control (no fertilizer), N=150 kg/acre, P=100 kg/acre, K=100 kg/acre, NP=150 + 100 kg/acre, NK=150 + 100 kg/acre and NPK=150 + 100 + 100 kg/acre were applied to cauliflower and experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design with four replications. Results indicated that maximum values for vegetative and reproductive parameters such as plant height, numbers of leaves per plant, leaf area, foliage fresh weight per plant, foliage dry weight per plant, curd weight, curd diameter, curd yield per hectare and chlorophyll contents (63.2 cm, 21 leaves/plant, 1233.9 cm<sup>2</sup>, 930 g/plant, 246 g/plant, 695.79 g, 15.26 cm, 25.20 tons/ha and 2.07 CCi respectively) were recorded in NPK treatment (150 + 100 + 100 kg/acre). Whereas, the lowest values were noted in control treatment (no fertilizer). However, total soluble solids were noted maximum (6.49<sup>o</sup>Brix and 6.19<sup>o</sup>Brix) in NK (150+100 kg/acre) and NPK (150 + 100 + 100 kg/acre) treatments and vitamin C was maximum (46.35 mg/100ml and 45.67 mg/100ml) in the treatments NPK (150 + 100 + 100 kg/acre) and NK (150 + 100 kg/acre). From this study, it is concluded that application of NPK (150 + 100 + 100 kg/acre) is the recommended dose for better growth, curd production and higher quality yield of cauliflower cv. F1 amazing hybrid.</p> Sadam Hussain Muhammad Irfan Ashraf Faizan Ahmad Chattha Rubab Zahra Muhammad Bilal Khan Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-02-27 2024-02-27 25 3-4 13 21 10.56557/pcbmb/2024/v25i1-28559 Baby Corn: A New Challenges, Scope, Present Status and Strategies https://ikprress.org/index.php/PCBMB/article/view/8542 <p>Maize is gaining popularity in both food and feed sectors. Every part of corn cob posses’ potential to be used for different purposes, and have economic value. With the changing in living lifestyle, the demand of baby corn is increasing due to its nutritional value, and to be the best alternative income source for farmers. Baby corn is a commercial crop developed in late 70’s, it is used as vegetable crop and it is called as a catch crop, due to its delicious taste and their nutritional health benefits in human beings and its increased demand in market soon it became a cash crops. Being a perishable crop, the shelf life of baby corn is less. It is a good organic food which could be used to prepare wide range of baby corn value added products. The value addition of the baby corn makes its availability in the offseason and also provides employment opportunities to person under poverty line and besides foreign exchange is also possible in both food and feed sectors.</p> G. Swapna G. Jadesha P. Mahadevu B. S. Shivakumar B. T. Ravindra Babu Mallikarjuna N. Chandrakala Hanagi Copyright (c) 2024 © Copyright I.K. Press. All rights reserved. 2024-02-13 2024-02-13 25 3-4 1 12 10.56557/pcbmb/2024/v25i1-28542 Comparative Proteomic Analysis for Identification and Characterization of Nutritionally and Stress-Responsive Seed Proteins of Finger Millet with Respect to Rice https://ikprress.org/index.php/PCBMB/article/view/8514 <p>In the present investigation, we compared the seed proteome of finger millet (<em>Eleusine coracana L. Gaertn</em>) and rice to gain an insight about the nutritional and stress-related proteins accumulated during finger millet seed development. Seed proteins of finger millet and rice were analyzed using Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and a total of 453 and 437 proteins were identified respectively. Comparative analysis revealed 25 and 9 proteins unique to finger millet and rice, respectively. Out of these unique proteins, 17 amd 5 were seed storage proteins (SSPs). In finger millet, these SSPs were the gliadins, zeins, and avenins. The rest of the unique proteins in both crops were the proteins involved in abiotic and biotic stress tolerance. Of the 428 common proteins, the relative abundance of 175 proteins was higher in finger millet. Twenty proteins of this list were SSPs which largely consisted of the proteins belonging to the prolamin protein family. However, only one 63 kDa globulin protein showed an exceptional accumulation of about 244-fold in rice seeds compared to finger millet. Further, a Late Embryogenic Abundant (LEA) protein along with several stress-related proteins such as amylase/trypsin inhibitors, defensins, and oleosins were identified that accumulated highly in finger millet seeds. Furthermore, five EF (Elongation factor) hands containing calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) were also identified as highly expressed in finger millet compared to rice. The present investigation would expand our knowledge in understanding the biosynthetic pathways involved in nutritional partitioning during seed development.</p> Vikram Singh Gaur Apoorv Tiwari Anil Kumar Manoj Singh Copyright (c) 2023 © Copyright I.K. Press. All rights reserved. 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 25 3-4 60 73 10.56557/pcbmb/2023/v24i7-88514 Detection and Estimation of Endogenous Jasmonic Acid and Salicylic Acid in Potato Genotypes Imposed with Defense Modulators Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography https://ikprress.org/index.php/PCBMB/article/view/8508 <p>Jasmonic Acid (JA) and Salicylic Acid (SA) are pivotal signaling molecules involved in the complex network of plant defense mechanisms. Enhancing the levels of JA and SA through exogenous application or genetic manipulation has shown promising results in bolstering plant resistance to a wide range of diseases. This study investigates the effects of JA, SA and Compost Tea (CT) treatments on the endogenous JA and SA responses of four distinct potato genotypes-KH (Kufri Himalini, <em>Solanum tuberosum</em>), KJ (Kufri Jyothi, <em>Solanum tuberosum</em>), AC4 (<em>Solanum sparsipillium</em>) and AC6 (<em>Solanum spegzinii</em>). High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis was conducted to determine endogenous detectable levels of JA and SA defence phytohormones. The absorption spectra showed peak absorptions at 295 nm and 325 nm for JA (25 µg ml<sup>-1</sup>) and SA (10 µg ml<sup>-1</sup>) respectively. Retention times of JA and SA were determined to be RT-3.74 and RT-2.86 min respectively. The genotypes were subjected to various concentrations of JA and SA, and their respective impacts on endogenous JA and SA were measured. Genotype-specific responses were evident, with all genotypes displaying distinct sensitivities with respect to endogenous detectable JA in CT (KH-15.42 µg ml<sup>-1</sup>, KJ-133.67 µg ml<sup>-1</sup>, AC4-10.36 µg ml<sup>-1</sup>, AC6-7.92 µg ml<sup>-1</sup>), JA (KH-83.03 µg ml<sup>-1</sup>, KJ-184.14 µg ml<sup>-1</sup>, AC4-286.95 µg ml<sup>-1</sup>, AC6-9.2 µg ml<sup>-1</sup>) treatments while no detectable JA and SA was observed in Control, SA and JA+SA combined treatments. JA could enhance higher amount of detectable endogenous JA than CT treatment. The application of JA and SA enhancement could demonstrate success in various other crops rendering resistance against diseases in an eco-friendly approach.</p> Shruthila Kakade Veena S. Anil Copyright (c) 2023 © Copyright I.K. Press. All rights reserved. 2023-12-30 2023-12-30 25 3-4 51 59 10.56557/pcbmb/2023/v24i7-88508 Sustainable Management of Nursery Diseases (Root Rot and Wilt) of Bael (Aegle marmelos Correa) https://ikprress.org/index.php/PCBMB/article/view/8485 <p>The investigation entitled was conducted in two continuous years at Achary Narendra Deva University of Agriculture and Technology, Kumarganj, Ayodhya. root rot and wilt of bael at nursery stage are very destructive because more than 35-40 % seedling of bael were died. This disease is highly prevalent at nursery stage during rainy season under warm and high humidity. Therefore, soil borne antagonistic fungus is more effective against the root rot and wilt pathogen of bael (<em>Aegle marmelos</em>, Correa). In this way, the efficacy of three <em>Trichoderma</em> species viz., <em>T.harzianum,T.virens and T. viride</em> were tested against the <em>Fusarium solani</em> causing root rot and wilt of bael under in vitro and <em>in vivo</em> conditions. In dual culture, we found that these antagonistic species of <em>Trichoderma</em> grow very fast before touching the colony of the <em>F. solani </em>and completely covering the colony of F. solani in 8 days. The population of <em>F. solani </em>infested soil could be minimized by treating the soil with&nbsp; <em>T. harzianum, T. virens and T. viride.</em></p> Pankaj Kumar Tiwari D. N. Shukla Ashok Kumar Verma Rohit Tiwari Copyright (c) 2023 © Copyright I.K. Press. All rights reserved. 2023-12-30 2023-12-30 25 3-4 44 50 10.56557/pcbmb/2023/v24i7-88485 Elementary and Advanced Mechanisms for Genetic Engineering in Crops https://ikprress.org/index.php/PCBMB/article/view/8481 <p>Presently, the field of plant breeding is in the genomics era, where innovative techniques are being integrated to accelerate and enhance the efficiency of breeding. Traditional plant breeding methods rely on maintaining plant germplasm with desirable agronomic traits from distinct plants produced through crosses or mutagenesis. However, advancements in genetic engineering encompass all forms of genetic modification through recombinant DNA technology (RDT) and cell fusion mechanisms. These approaches shed light on areas involving mutant organisms, DNA replication, genetic linkage resolution, genetically modified organisms (GMOs), protein sequencing, functional genomics, and computational genomics alterations in genetic engineering. The integration of structural genomics into breeding and eugenics analysis has resulted in a vast knowledge base on crop genetics, species divergence, and molecular origin of traits, as well as the evolutionary history of crop lineage from ancient ancestral species. The genomic data and advancements have proven essential in identifying rare genes, alleles, or local lesions crucial to significant agronomic traits, thereby expediting breeding cycles. This article aims to explore the potential of emerging genetic engineering technologies, including synthetic biology and genome editing, to further advance crop genetics and plant breeding.</p> Prerna Johar R. K. Salgotra Copyright (c) 2023 © Copyright I.K. Press. All rights reserved. 2023-12-29 2023-12-29 25 3-4 33 43 10.56557/pcbmb/2023/v24i7-88481 Cloning and Characterization of Rep Gene of the Strain of Tomato Leaf Curl New Delhi Virus (G: Begomovirus, F: Geminiviridae) Infecting Ridge Gourd in Karnataka and in silico Analysis of Rep Protein https://ikprress.org/index.php/PCBMB/article/view/8466 <p>Ridge gourd [<em>Luffa acutangula</em>&nbsp;(Roxb.) L.,] is one of the important vegetable crop affected by various diseases particularly viral disease <em>tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus </em>(ToLCNDV). The ridge gourd plants with leaf curling and yellowing symptoms were collected and used in for the amplification of the of the <em>Rep </em>gene. Cloning, sequencing and bioinformatics analysis of the <em>Rep </em>gene was carried out.&nbsp; The results revealed the association of this virus isolate with the different host of Cucurbitaceae family. Pairwise identity derived implemented by BLAST identified that the replicator initiator protein gene (<em>Rep</em>) of the bipartite virus showed&nbsp; maximum 96.90% sequence identity to the corresponding <em>Rep</em> gene of ridge gourd <em>tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus</em> isolate RG3 in ridge gourd - complete genome from Madikari, Karnataka (accession no KT426905). This also showed 97.90% sequence similarities with <em>tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus</em> strain CH7 of Chrysanthemum. Phylogenetic dendrogram of the <em>Rep</em> gene depicted that it grouped with ToLCNDV of different Indian isolates of ridge gourd and with ToLCNDV of potato from Pakistan (LN908936), and with tomato from Bangladesh (KM383738.1) showing 93.12% and 92.94% sequence similarity respectively. This study provides association of the <em>Rep </em>gene infected ridge gourd pants with Cucurbitaceae family crops and other related crops. This will helps in carrying further research in the management of ToLCNDV diseases using different biotechnological applications.</p> Ananya Nagesha N. Mahesha B. Copyright (c) 2023 Copyright I.K. Press. All rights reserved. 2023-12-11 2023-12-11 25 3-4 22 32 10.56557/pcbmb/2023/v24i7-88466 Protoplasts Isolation from Sardinian Germoplasm of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) https://ikprress.org/index.php/PCBMB/article/view/8450 <p>Genetic studies of saffron indicate low heritability and strong environmental effects for most of the traits examined, suggesting local variability that has been selected over time. In vitro culture can be of support for genetic improvement programs, multiplication, or production of secondary metabolites. This is particularly relevant for saffron due to its triploidy. In the present work, the in vitro culture of Sardinian genotypes of saffron, using protoplasts, is described. Protoplasts were obtained from young leaves using a KAO enzyme mixture and cultured on KM8P substrate. The use of Evans et al. enzymes did not result in the production of protoplasts. The results presented in this work should be considered as the initial phase in the in vitro production of secondary metabolites obtained from local saffron genotypes.</p> G. M. Scarpa Copyright (c) 2023 © Copyright I.K. Press. All rights reserved. 2023-11-29 2023-11-29 25 3-4 17 21 10.56557/pcbmb/2023/v24i7-88450 Comparative Analysis of Pollen Grains from Various Floral Species Using Scanning Electron Microscope https://ikprress.org/index.php/PCBMB/article/view/8438 <p>The morphology of pollen may be used for identification of different species of plants. In this study, pollen morphology and ultrastructure of four cultivars of Moss Rose<strong>, </strong><em>Hibiscus rosa sinensis, Petunia </em>and Red Garden Rose were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The characteristics studied were pollen size and shape (length, width, and length/width ratio), length of the colpus, width of the mesocolpium, and exine characteristics (number of ridges per an area of 100 μm<sup>2</sup>, width of the ridge, and width of the furrow). All these plant flowers had tricolpate pollen grains and striate exine ornamentation, but significant differences in some traits were found.</p> Anukritii Dutta Vinay Kumar Rajiv Dutta Copyright (c) 2023 © Copyright I.K. Press. All rights reserved. 2023-11-23 2023-11-23 25 3-4 8 16 10.56557/pcbmb/2023/v24i7-88438 Progression of Bacterial Blight of Clusterbean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) in Relation to Different Sowing Dates, Varieties and Weather Parameters https://ikprress.org/index.php/PCBMB/article/view/8436 <p>At CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, Haryana, a field study was conducted to investigate the impact of varying planting timings, varieties, and weather parameters on the advancement of bacterial blight in clusterbean. The experiment was set up in three replications using a factorial randomized block design. Three types of cluster beans, namely HG 365, HG 563, and HG 2-20, were sowed at three distinct dates <em>i.e., </em>the 1st, 3rd, and 4th week of July. Clusterbean bacterial blight spread faster in late-planted crops (4th week of July) than in timely-planted (2nd week of July) and early-planted (1st week of July). Maximum temperature (Tmax) and maximum relative humidity (RHm) correlated positively, while minimum temperature (Tmin) and minimum relative humidity (RHe) correlated negatively, and disease development was extremely significant and negatively correlated for HG 365 at all sowing dates. Clusterbean HG 365 was shown to be more resistant to bacterial blight than HG 563 and HG 2-20.</p> Rahul Raj Bharti M. L. Khichar Mohit Godara Lalit Mohan Ankush Kumar Ajit Singh Copyright (c) 2023 © Copyright I.K. Press. All rights reserved. 2023-11-20 2023-11-20 25 3-4 1 7 10.56557/pcbmb/2023/v24i7-88436 Optimization of the Media and Plant Growth Regulators for Clonal Propagation of Adansonia digitata L.: An Endangered Tree https://ikprress.org/index.php/PCBMB/article/view/8426 <p>This research carried out to evaluate the influence of different nutrient media, specifically Murashige and Skoog (MS), Anderson medium (AM), and Woody Plant Medium (WPM), in both liquid and semisolid forms, on the <em>in vitro</em> growth of shoots and roots in <em>Adansonia digitata</em> (baobab) using nodal segments as the starting explants. These media were supplemented with varying concentrations of two plant growth regulators, NAA (0.1-1.0 mg/l) and BAP (0.2-2.0 mg/l).The results of the study demonstrated that <em>Adansonia digitata</em> explants exhibited the highest increase in both the number and length of shoots when cultured on MS medium with a combination of NAA (0.3 mg/l) and BAP (0.5 mg/l) in a semisolid state. The average number of shoots reached 3.8±2.33, and their average length was 2.3±2.00 cm. Plantlets grown on MS medium exhibited well-developed leaves and shoots.Further experiments were conducted with <em>in vitro</em> shoots, exploring various concentrations of the auxin NAA and cytokinins BAP, TDZ, and KN on MS medium. The findings indicated that BAP and NAA were more effective in promoting shoot proliferation compared to the other tested hormones. The combination of BAP (0.5 mg/l) and NAA (0.2 mg/l) significantly improved the shoot proliferation rate, with the highest percentage (60.4%) and the greatest number of regenerated shoots (4.8±2.33) observed on MS medium.In contrast, plantlets cultured in both AM and WPM media displayed lower averages for shoot and root numbers and lengths compared to those grown on MS medium. The maximum number of roots (3.1±1.66) was obtained when MS medium was augmented with IBA at a concentration of 1.0 mg/l.Subsequently, the produced plantlets were gradually transferred to pots filled with a mixture of perlite and cocopeat in a 1:3 ratio and placed in a greenhouse for further growth.</p> Mujeeb Ur Rehman Manisha Chaudhary Sandeep Kumar Copyright (c) 2023 © Copyright I.K. Press. All rights reserved. 2023-11-01 2023-11-01 25 3-4 73 85 10.56557/pcbmb/2023/v24i5-68426 Using Vitrification–Dehydration Method as a New Protocol for In-vitro Cryopreservation of Date Palm Shoot Tip Cultivars https://ikprress.org/index.php/PCBMB/article/view/8418 <p>This study was conducted to develop an <em>in vitro</em> method for the short-term conservation of the planting materials of date palm (<em>Phoenix dactylifera</em>). The conservation of the genetic resources of date palm species and germplasm represented by the cryopreservation of biological material, such as shoot tips of date palm dropped in LN (Liquid Nitrogen) at low temperatures, is a safe method. The main objective of this study was the collection and <em>in vitro</em> germplasm preservation of the date palm cultivars, and this study evaluated the <em>in vitro</em> preservation and genetic stability of date palm shoot tip explants using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in the medium for long-term storage. Shoot tip explants of about 2-3 cm in length were excised from <em>in vitro</em> cultures and were transferred to preservation media. The results showed that the highest rates of survival (80%) and recovery (75%) were observed with 1.2 M sucrose. To determine the effect of vitrification on freezing tolerances, cultures were exposed to a solution that dissolved the glaze for 60-80 minutes. The maximum survival rate obtained with exposed cultures was 85%. RAPD (randomly amplified polymorphic DNA) was used to explain the differences in the genetic characteristics of cryogenic tissue cultures and non-cryogenic tissues of date palm. Both were similar to the germinated date palm in the open field. Finally, the cryopreserved plants were able to adapt to free-living conditions after acclimatization, All aspects will contribute to the improvement of the currently available techniques for the <em>in vitro</em> germplasm conservation of date palms.</p> Heba Allah A. Mohasseb Copyright (c) 2023 © Copyright I.K. Press. All rights reserved. 2023-10-18 2023-10-18 25 3-4 60 72 10.56557/pcbmb/2023/v24i5-68418 Effect of Pomegranate (Punica granatum) Peel Powder Supplementation on Hemato-Biochemical Profile of Lactating Mehsana Goats https://ikprress.org/index.php/PCBMB/article/view/8404 <p>This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementation of pomegranate peel powder on hemato-biochemical profile of lactating Mehsana goats. Twenty-four lactating Mehsana goats (7 days post- partum) were assigned randomly into four groups (6 animals in each) and stratified on the basis of their live weight and milk production in previous lactation. The experimental animals in T1 group were fed on basal diet while in T2, T3 and T4 groups were supplemented with pomegranate peel powder at the rate of 10, 20 and 40 g per day per head, respectively. The duration of this experiment was 120 days. The blood samples were collected at the end (120<sup>th</sup> day) of experimental feeding. The mean hemoglobin and packed cell values were non-significant among the experimental groups (the T1, T2, T3 and T4 groups). Likewise, there was no effect on TEC and TLC caused by the dietary addition of pomegranate peel powder in lactating Mehsana goats. The difference in serum biochemical parameters viz. glucose, total proteins, albumin, triglycerides, cholesterol, ALT, AST and urea were non-significant among T1, T2, T3 and T4 groups. The serum creatinine concentration was significantly (P&lt;0.05) higher in groups T2 and T3 than the T1 and T4 groups. Based on the results, it may be concluded that pomegranate (<em>Punica granatum</em>) peel powder can be supplemented in the diet of lactating Mehsana goats up to the rate of 40 g/day/animal during the period of 120 days post-partum without any adverse effects on hemato-biochemical parameters.</p> C. P. Modi S. S. Patil M. M. Pawar S. K. Mohapatra H. H. Panchasara Mayank Patel J. R. Patel B. K. Ashwar Copyright (c) 2023 © Copyright I.K. Press. All rights reserved. 2023-10-05 2023-10-05 25 3-4 55 59 10.56557/pcbmb/2023/v24i5-68404 Antibacterial, Antimitotic and Anti-Inflammatory Efficacy of Delonix regia Flower Extracts https://ikprress.org/index.php/PCBMB/article/view/8384 <p><em>Delonix regia </em>is a multipurpose tree, it is harvested from the wild for a wide range of local uses, including for medicines, food, timber, fuel and beads. It is cultivated as a shade tree in plantations and is used to stabilize and enrich the soil. This species is one of the most widely cultivated ornamental plants in the world, being grown as an ornamental plant in gardens and by the sides of roads throughout the tropics. The main objective of the study was to understand the effect of the <em>Delonix regia</em> flower extract for its antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antimitotic study. For the analysis of the antibacterial study, the ethanolic extraction method was used and the extract was dissolved in DMSO and distilled water which was further tested on the clinical strains of <em>Staphylococcus</em> and <em>Enterococcus faecalis</em>, where zone of inhibition was observed for both the strains. For the analysis of the anti-inflammatory study human blood was used, the inflammatory test was carried by the Hemolysis Inhibition Assay, post the analysis the extract showed potential to inhibit the breakdown of red blood cells. For the analysis of antimitotic activity <em>Macrotyloma uniflorum</em> (horse gram) was suspended in the chemotherapy drug- Vinblastin along with control and dilutions of the flower extract, which was quantitatively assessed. The results implied that the flower extract has properties that can inhibit the growth of cells/gram.</p> Hariharan P. Aditi A. Iyengar Shriya Anand Bhambore Arul Selvan R. Nagendra H. G. Copyright (c) 2023 © Copyright I.K. Press. All rights reserved. 2023-09-13 2023-09-13 25 3-4 46 54 10.56557/pcbmb/2023/v24i5-68384