PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY <p><strong>PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY (ISSN: 0972-2025)</strong> journal is published by I. K. Press from Volume 14. <strong>PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY</strong> is the official journal of <strong>Society for Biology and Biotechnology</strong>, Kannankurichi-P.O Salem-636 008, Tamil Nadu State, India.</p> <p><strong>The Scope of Plant Cell Biotechnology and Molecular Biology (PCBMB) (ISSN: 0972-2025) includes</strong><br>1. Plant Science related research (including all branches of Plant Science like Agronomy, Algology and Phycology, Bacteriology, Bryology, Mycology, Paleobotany, Plant Anatomy and Physiology, Pteridology, etc)<br>2. Cell Biology (including all branches of Cell Biology)<br>3. Biotechnology (including all branches of Biotechnology)<br>4. Molecular Biology (including all branches of Molecular Biology)<br>This international English-language journal includes papers exploring both basic and applied aspects of the above-mentioned areas.</p> en-US (International Knowledge Press) (International Knowledge Press) Mon, 20 Nov 2023 12:20:39 +0000 OJS 60 Protoplasts Isolation from Sardinian Germoplasm of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) <p>Genetic studies of saffron indicate low heritability and strong environmental effects for most of the traits examined, suggesting local variability that has been selected over time. In vitro culture can be of support for genetic improvement programs, multiplication, or production of secondary metabolites. This is particularly relevant for saffron due to its triploidy. In the present work, the in vitro culture of Sardinian genotypes of saffron, using protoplasts, is described. Protoplasts were obtained from young leaves using a KAO enzyme mixture and cultured on KM8P substrate. The use of Evans et al. enzymes did not result in the production of protoplasts. The results presented in this work should be considered as the initial phase in the in vitro production of secondary metabolites obtained from local saffron genotypes.</p> G. M. Scarpa Copyright (c) 2023 © Copyright I.K. Press. All rights reserved. Wed, 29 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Comparative Analysis of Pollen Grains from Various Floral Species Using Scanning Electron Microscope <p>The morphology of pollen may be used for identification of different species of plants. In this study, pollen morphology and ultrastructure of four cultivars of Moss Rose<strong>, </strong><em>Hibiscus rosa sinensis, Petunia </em>and Red Garden Rose were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The characteristics studied were pollen size and shape (length, width, and length/width ratio), length of the colpus, width of the mesocolpium, and exine characteristics (number of ridges per an area of 100 μm<sup>2</sup>, width of the ridge, and width of the furrow). All these plant flowers had tricolpate pollen grains and striate exine ornamentation, but significant differences in some traits were found.</p> Anukritii Dutta , Vinay Kumar , Rajiv Dutta Copyright (c) 2023 © Copyright I.K. Press. All rights reserved. Thu, 23 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Progression of Bacterial Blight of Clusterbean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) in Relation to Different Sowing Dates, Varieties and Weather Parameters <p>At CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, Haryana, a field study was conducted to investigate the impact of varying planting timings, varieties, and weather parameters on the advancement of bacterial blight in clusterbean. The experiment was set up in three replications using a factorial randomized block design. Three types of cluster beans, namely HG 365, HG 563, and HG 2-20, were sowed at three distinct dates <em>i.e., </em>the 1st, 3rd, and 4th week of July. Clusterbean bacterial blight spread faster in late-planted crops (4th week of July) than in timely-planted (2nd week of July) and early-planted (1st week of July). Maximum temperature (Tmax) and maximum relative humidity (RHm) correlated positively, while minimum temperature (Tmin) and minimum relative humidity (RHe) correlated negatively, and disease development was extremely significant and negatively correlated for HG 365 at all sowing dates. Clusterbean HG 365 was shown to be more resistant to bacterial blight than HG 563 and HG 2-20.</p> Rahul Raj Bharti , M. L. Khichar , Mohit Godara , Lalit Mohan , Ankush Kumar , Ajit Singh Copyright (c) 2023 © Copyright I.K. Press. All rights reserved. Mon, 20 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Optimization of the Media and Plant Growth Regulators for Clonal Propagation of Adansonia digitata L.: An Endangered Tree <p>This research carried out to evaluate the influence of different nutrient media, specifically Murashige and Skoog (MS), Anderson medium (AM), and Woody Plant Medium (WPM), in both liquid and semisolid forms, on the <em>in vitro</em> growth of shoots and roots in <em>Adansonia digitata</em> (baobab) using nodal segments as the starting explants. These media were supplemented with varying concentrations of two plant growth regulators, NAA (0.1-1.0 mg/l) and BAP (0.2-2.0 mg/l).The results of the study demonstrated that <em>Adansonia digitata</em> explants exhibited the highest increase in both the number and length of shoots when cultured on MS medium with a combination of NAA (0.3 mg/l) and BAP (0.5 mg/l) in a semisolid state. The average number of shoots reached 3.8±2.33, and their average length was 2.3±2.00 cm. Plantlets grown on MS medium exhibited well-developed leaves and shoots.Further experiments were conducted with <em>in vitro</em> shoots, exploring various concentrations of the auxin NAA and cytokinins BAP, TDZ, and KN on MS medium. The findings indicated that BAP and NAA were more effective in promoting shoot proliferation compared to the other tested hormones. The combination of BAP (0.5 mg/l) and NAA (0.2 mg/l) significantly improved the shoot proliferation rate, with the highest percentage (60.4%) and the greatest number of regenerated shoots (4.8±2.33) observed on MS medium.In contrast, plantlets cultured in both AM and WPM media displayed lower averages for shoot and root numbers and lengths compared to those grown on MS medium. The maximum number of roots (3.1±1.66) was obtained when MS medium was augmented with IBA at a concentration of 1.0 mg/l.Subsequently, the produced plantlets were gradually transferred to pots filled with a mixture of perlite and cocopeat in a 1:3 ratio and placed in a greenhouse for further growth.</p> Mujeeb Ur Rehman , Manisha Chaudhary , Sandeep Kumar Copyright (c) 2023 © Copyright I.K. Press. All rights reserved. Wed, 01 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Using Vitrification–Dehydration Method as a New Protocol for In-vitro Cryopreservation of Date Palm Shoot Tip Cultivars <p>This study was conducted to develop an <em>in vitro</em> method for the short-term conservation of the planting materials of date palm (<em>Phoenix dactylifera</em>). The conservation of the genetic resources of date palm species and germplasm represented by the cryopreservation of biological material, such as shoot tips of date palm dropped in LN (Liquid Nitrogen) at low temperatures, is a safe method. The main objective of this study was the collection and <em>in vitro</em> germplasm preservation of the date palm cultivars, and this study evaluated the <em>in vitro</em> preservation and genetic stability of date palm shoot tip explants using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in the medium for long-term storage. Shoot tip explants of about 2-3 cm in length were excised from <em>in vitro</em> cultures and were transferred to preservation media. The results showed that the highest rates of survival (80%) and recovery (75%) were observed with 1.2 M sucrose. To determine the effect of vitrification on freezing tolerances, cultures were exposed to a solution that dissolved the glaze for 60-80 minutes. The maximum survival rate obtained with exposed cultures was 85%. RAPD (randomly amplified polymorphic DNA) was used to explain the differences in the genetic characteristics of cryogenic tissue cultures and non-cryogenic tissues of date palm. Both were similar to the germinated date palm in the open field. Finally, the cryopreserved plants were able to adapt to free-living conditions after acclimatization, All aspects will contribute to the improvement of the currently available techniques for the <em>in vitro</em> germplasm conservation of date palms.</p> Heba Allah A. Mohasseb Copyright (c) 2023 © Copyright I.K. Press. All rights reserved. Wed, 18 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Pomegranate (Punica granatum) Peel Powder Supplementation on Hemato-Biochemical Profile of Lactating Mehsana Goats <p>This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementation of pomegranate peel powder on hemato-biochemical profile of lactating Mehsana goats. Twenty-four lactating Mehsana goats (7 days post- partum) were assigned randomly into four groups (6 animals in each) and stratified on the basis of their live weight and milk production in previous lactation. The experimental animals in T1 group were fed on basal diet while in T2, T3 and T4 groups were supplemented with pomegranate peel powder at the rate of 10, 20 and 40 g per day per head, respectively. The duration of this experiment was 120 days. The blood samples were collected at the end (120<sup>th</sup> day) of experimental feeding. The mean hemoglobin and packed cell values were non-significant among the experimental groups (the T1, T2, T3 and T4 groups). Likewise, there was no effect on TEC and TLC caused by the dietary addition of pomegranate peel powder in lactating Mehsana goats. The difference in serum biochemical parameters viz. glucose, total proteins, albumin, triglycerides, cholesterol, ALT, AST and urea were non-significant among T1, T2, T3 and T4 groups. The serum creatinine concentration was significantly (P&lt;0.05) higher in groups T2 and T3 than the T1 and T4 groups. Based on the results, it may be concluded that pomegranate (<em>Punica granatum</em>) peel powder can be supplemented in the diet of lactating Mehsana goats up to the rate of 40 g/day/animal during the period of 120 days post-partum without any adverse effects on hemato-biochemical parameters.</p> C. P. Modi , S. S. Patil , M. M. Pawar , S. K. Mohapatra , H. H. Panchasara , Mayank Patel , J. R. Patel , B. K. Ashwar Copyright (c) 2023 © Copyright I.K. Press. All rights reserved. Thu, 05 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Antibacterial, Antimitotic and Anti-Inflammatory Efficacy of Delonix regia Flower Extracts <p><em>Delonix regia </em>is a multipurpose tree, it is harvested from the wild for a wide range of local uses, including for medicines, food, timber, fuel and beads. It is cultivated as a shade tree in plantations and is used to stabilize and enrich the soil. This species is one of the most widely cultivated ornamental plants in the world, being grown as an ornamental plant in gardens and by the sides of roads throughout the tropics. The main objective of the study was to understand the effect of the <em>Delonix regia</em> flower extract for its antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antimitotic study. For the analysis of the antibacterial study, the ethanolic extraction method was used and the extract was dissolved in DMSO and distilled water which was further tested on the clinical strains of <em>Staphylococcus</em> and <em>Enterococcus faecalis</em>, where zone of inhibition was observed for both the strains. For the analysis of the anti-inflammatory study human blood was used, the inflammatory test was carried by the Hemolysis Inhibition Assay, post the analysis the extract showed potential to inhibit the breakdown of red blood cells. For the analysis of antimitotic activity <em>Macrotyloma uniflorum</em> (horse gram) was suspended in the chemotherapy drug- Vinblastin along with control and dilutions of the flower extract, which was quantitatively assessed. The results implied that the flower extract has properties that can inhibit the growth of cells/gram.</p> Hariharan P., Aditi A. Iyengar, Shriya Anand Bhambore, Arul Selvan R., Nagendra H. G. Copyright (c) 2023 © Copyright I.K. Press. All rights reserved. Wed, 13 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Direct and Indirect Organogenesis in Olive (Olea europaea L.) <p>Olive explants included of pieces of young stems which were divided into nodal explants cultured on MS media supplemented with cytokinins and auxin. Callus induction and different forms of shooting and adventitious lateral buds regeneration were dominant results. Level of auxin IBA in all treatments was used at 0.1 mg/l. But cytokinins combination were used at different combinations.&nbsp; Combination of BA and ZEA led to more organogenesis and combination of BA and 2ip led to callus induction. Organogenesis was occurred with three different forms including indirect with passing callus phase, direct with growth of lateral buds and elimination of dominance apical and direct with regeneration of new lateral buds on explants.</p> Firoozeh Chamandoosti Copyright (c) 2023 © Copyright I.K. Press. All rights reserved. Wed, 13 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Characterization of Advanced Lines of Aus Rice (Oryza sativa) Based on Qualitative Traits <p>The present study was conducted at the experimental farm, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka during Aus season, 2017. The experiment was carried out to characterize ten advanced Aus lines (F<sub>8</sub>) based on qualitative traits. The lines were evaluated in RCBD with three replications. Thirty one qualitative traits were used to characterize the advanced lines. Variation was observed in the traits like leaf pubescence, shape of the ligule, attitude of the blade of flag leaf, days to heading, days to maturity, 1000-grain weight, grain length (without dehulling), sterile lemma length, decorticated grain length (after dehulling), decorticated grain shape, culm length, panicle length. Minimum days to heading was found in L1, L2, L3, L4, L5, and L10. Early maturity was found in L1, L2, L3, L4, L5, and L10. 1000 grain wt. was highest in L2, L4, L6, L7, and L8. Six lines (L1, L2, L3, L4, L5, and L10) showed early time of heading, early maturing and medium type of culm length. Two lines (L7, L9) were observed having long panicle (26-30 cm). It was concluded that the lines L10, L5, L3 and L4 can be selected for further study.</p> Aliya Adiba Khanam, Md. Shahidur Rashid Bhuiyan, Md. Sarowar Hossain, Ahmed Shahriar Anik , Mst. Sumayea Khan , Kamrun Nahar Sheuly, Md. Imdadul Haque, Khalid Syfullah Copyright (c) 2023 © Copyright I.K. Press. All rights reserved. Tue, 12 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Determination of Antimicrobial Properties of Curcuma longa L. (Turmeric) Leaf Extract and Its Potential Application in Consumer Goods <p>Turmeric has been used as a functional food material but, other parts of the plant such as leaves are wasted as byproducts. This project aims at utilization of turmeric leaves which is generally thrown off or burnt as waste. Disposal of turmeric leaves after harvest of turmeric possesses a huge challenge for the farmers, removal of leaves from the plant comes with an extra cost as the workers need to be paid for removing the leaves, thus to cut the cost farmers burn the leaves. India dominates the world production scenario contributing 80% of turmeric growth, which is mainly used as spice with other applications being used in preparation of dyes, drugs, cosmetics and for religious ceremonies. Karnataka is the third largest producer of turmeric in India. According to studies, the phytochemical characteristics of the turmeric leaf extract demonstrates functional effects such as cosmeceutical, skin immunity, anti-inflammation, antimicrobial, anti-insecticidal activities and antixidant activities. Turmeric leaves also have large volume and surface area and thus can be used for industrial applications. Turmeric leaf oil is rich in phenolic components. The main constituents of the turmeric leaves are curcumnene, limonene, phellandrene and turmerone. In this regard, this project aims at complete utilization of turmeric leaves and turning the leaves which is generally regarded as waste into value added products. The final products developed from the leaves are Dhoop sticks and Room Freshener. The Dhoop sticks developed are organic and chemical free and has aroma that can be refreshing and relaxing as turmeric leaves have strong aroma. Turmeric leaves are rich in Curcumin which is known to have Anti-insecticidal properties in this regard Dhoop sticks are being developed. Perfumes/Room freshener are developed using turmeric leaves as they have anti-bacterial properties and prevents any type of skin allergy while producing fresh fragrance. The products are developed keeping in the mind the source of extra income they act as for the farmers. When tested for anti-bacterial activity the results gave positive results, which is an indication that turmeric leaves have great applications and needs to be explored.</p> Hariharan P., Prashant S. H., Chaturthy, Trisha C., Priyanka R., Nagendra H. G. Copyright (c) 2023 © Copyright I.K. Press. All rights reserved. Mon, 11 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Identification of Bioactive Components and in vitro Cytotoxicity Analysis of Annona squamosa Extract on Human Breast Cancer Cells <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The present study is to explore to determine the bioactive components and in vitro cytotoxicity of the chloroform extract of <em>Annona squamosa</em> analyzed.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> The aerial parts of chloroform extract of the medicinal plant <em>Annona squamosa</em> were used to regulate the bioactive components and their in vitro analysis of cytotoxicity was ceased by vero and human breast MCF-7 cell lines were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry and MTT assay respectively.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The present study envisages 12 phytocompounds and their significant cytotoxic role on Vero as well as human breast carcinoma and MCF-7 cell lines.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Herbal medicinal plants have been extensively studied for their possible medicinal value as primary source drugs. Obviously, the natural products from the herbal medicinal sources will continue to be extremely important as sources of medicinal agents.</p> S. Selvakumar, A. Mounisha, J. Joshna Florence Copyright (c) 2023 © Copyright I.K. Press. All rights reserved. Sat, 09 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Estimation of Combining Ability for Flowering and Yield Attributes in Bhendi (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) <p>The present study on general combining ability effects and specific combining ability effects involves seven parents <em>viz.,</em> G1 (Arka Anamika), G2 (Aruna), G3 (Varsha Uphar), G4 (Pusa-5), G5 (MDU-1), G6 (Kashi Kranti), G7 (Ankur-41) with their 21 F<sub>1</sub> hybrids through half-diallel mating system. The present investigation was undertaken using Randomized Block Design with three replications. The combining ability effects were estimated for seven characters <em>viz.,</em> days to first flowering, days to first fruit harvest, fruit length, fruit girth, fruit weight, number of immature seeds per fruit and fruit yield per plant. The results showed that <em>gca </em>effects of parents and <em>sca</em> effect of hybrids were significantly differed. The SCA variance was higher than the GCA variance that indicates the presence of preponderance of non-additive gene action for all the seven traits <em>i.e., </em>presence of preponderance of non-additive gene action for all characters except number of nodes per plant. Among the parents, G3 was found to be a good general combiner based on the <em>per se </em>performance and <em>gca </em>effects for its flowering and yield traits. Among the 21 F<sub>1</sub> hybrids, the crosses G3 x G5 and G4 x G6 were superior on the basis of <em>per se </em>performance and <em>sca</em> effect for flowering and yield attributes. Hence, these hybrids were used for further exploitation of heterosis.</p> D. Gokilappriya , S. Anuja , R. Kandasamy , T. Sabesan Copyright (c) 2023 © Copyright I.K. Press. All rights reserved. Sat, 09 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Microsatellite Markers Based Molecular Variability among Locally Collected Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. Genotypes <p>Pigeonpea [<em>Cajanus cajan </em>(L.) Millsp.] is an important deep-rooted pulse crop, predominantly cultivated in rainfed areas by small and marginal farmers in India and South Africa. The crop’s productivity is severely constrained due to abiotic and biotic stresses in its agro-ecosystem. Molecular variability assessment in pigeonpea can be the key for successful breeding to mitigate the crop from future biotic and abiotic stresses. Molecular markers based genetic diversity analysis was done to evaluate locally collected 32 genotypes of pigeonpea. Total 20 microsatellite markers were used in the present analysis. Pigeonpea genotypes had higher level of genetic diversity. Microsatellite markers were able to discriminate the studied genotypes into three clusters. Most of the genotypes were grouped together according to their collection sites. The findings of the present study open the window of opportunity,&nbsp; for future research and exploitation of these locally collected genotypes for pigeonpea crop improvement.</p> Niraj Tripathi , Dhaneshwar B. Patil, Sumit Kakade, Sahab Kumar Patel , Gopilal Anjana, Moni Thomas Copyright (c) 2023 © Copyright I.K. Press. All rights reserved. Mon, 28 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Iron Nanoparticles Application on Date Palm In-vitro Regeneration Stability <p>The use of nanoparticles is critical in a number of industries, including manufacturing, healthcare, and agriculture. Iron nanoparticles (Fe NPs) are one of the main sources of plant nutrition because they are effective in releasing a variety of pH values. To study the effect of different concentrations of Fe NPs (0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 ml/l) on the regeneration and rooting of Bartamoda cv. date palm, as well as to ascertain the content of carbohydrates and chlorophyll in shoots, an experiment was conducted at the Central Laboratory for Research and Development of Date Palm, Agricultural Research Center Giza, Egypt. Adding treatments of Fe NPs at 1.0 and 2.0 ml/l to MS medium containing BA at 2.0 mg/l and NAA at 0.5 mg/l significantly enhanced growth (number of shoots/cluster, number of leaves/cluster, and leaf length), according to Results. MS medium supplemented with NAA at 1.0 mg/l and Fe NPs at 1.0 ml/l showed the highest rooting percentage (89.0%). Treating the shoots with varying doses of iron nanoparticles led to a significantly higher iron content compared to the untreated control shoots. The carbohydrate content improved steadily and significantly with increasing Fe NP concentration. Compared with the control group, treatments with Fe NPs at 1.0 and 2.0 ml/l enhanced the levels of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoids.</p> <p>Through the use of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiles, the somaclonal variation in shoots that can be caused by Fe NPs during the multiplication stage was examined. To amplify DNA from various shoots, seven random 10-mer primers were applied. The shoots' RAPD patterns matched those of the original plant mother, proving that Fe NPs did not cause somaclonal variation that could be seen using the RAPD method.</p> Rasha N. Arafa, Sayed A. A. Elsayh, I. M. Shams El-Din, Salwa El-Habashy, Emadeldin A. H. Ahmed, Eman H. Afifi, Marwa M. Abdalgaleel, Rabab W. El Aramany, Alaa N. Draz, Mohamed F. Gaber Copyright (c) 2023 © Copyright I.K. Press. All rights reserved. Sat, 26 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Optimizing Surface Sterilization for Micropropagation of Gerbera jamesonii: A Study on Explant Survival and Contamination Control <p>In the commercial production of gerberas, micropropagation enables the large-scale production of plants in a limited space, as well as the obtaining of disease and pest-free uniform plants. This technique also ensures precision in production schedules and product quality, regarding plant homogeneity and vigour. Nevertheless, the occurrence of contamination in an <em>in vitro </em>culture is frequent, and might result in high damage. Plant materials have different kind of microbes i.e., exogenous and endogenous in nature which is the main reason for contamination in tissue culture. Pre-treatments to explants with fungicides and bactericides can be effectively used to eliminate the surface contamination. Surface sterilizing agents, their levels and duration of exposure are known to impact the <em>in vitro </em>culture establishment. In the present experiment, pre-treatment of explants was carried out with Teepol Bleach<sup>TM</sup> solution (0.1%) and Bavistin<sup>TM</sup> (0.1%) for 15 and 20 minutes respectively for effective control of fungal contaminations in all the cultures. For the control of bacterial contamination antibiotics were added in culture medium. Surface sterilization of explants with 0.1% mercuric chloride (HgCl<sub>2</sub>) for five minutes gave the maximum survival of the growing cultures.</p> Satish Kumar , S. K. Sehrawat , Arvind Malik , Shikha Yashveer , Deepak Kumar , Pawan Kumar Copyright (c) 2023 © Copyright I.K. Press. All rights reserved. Sat, 12 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Irrigation Water Treatments on Growth and Quality of Taiwan Sugar Palm Seedlings Grown in Some Traditional Growing Media <p>Under screen house at the nursery of Hort. Res. Inst., A.R.C., Giza Egypt, a pot experiment was conducted during 2021 seasons to study the response of Taiwan sugar palm (<em>Arenga engleri</em> Bcc.) seedlings to planting in the different growing media (sand, clay and sand + clay at 1: 1, v/v), different irrigation treatments (100, 75 and 50 % of F.C. of each medium) and their interactions in a factorial experiment arranged in completely randomized design with three replications.</p> <p>Results of the experiment have shown that planting in sand + clay mixture (1:1, v/v) gave the highest mean values of different growth parameters, with few exceptions as compared to planting either in sand alone or clay standalone in the two seasons. In addition, the gradual decrement in water supply was accompanied by a gradual decrease in values of all vegetative and root growth traits to reach minimum by 50 % of F.C. water treatment in both seasons. However, the reduction percentage caused by 75 % of F.C. treatment ranged between 1.1 to 17.6 % for different growth characters, while that induced by 50 % of F.C. one ranged between 23.8 to 40.4 %. The growth performance of plants watered with 75 % F.C. was greatly resemble to that of plants watered with 100 % F.C., whereas that of plants watered with 50 % F.C. was not, as it gave the smallest plants, which can be used for decorating the limited area places. The treatments showed a marked influence on various growth traits, but the dominance was for the combining between planting in sand + clay mixture and irrigating with 100 % F.C. water treatment, as such combination recorded the utmost high means in different growth traits over the other combinations, with few exceptions in both seasons. A similar response occurred, concentrations of chlorophyll a, b, carotenoids, total carbohydrates, N, P and K in the leaves.</p> <p>Accordingly, it can be recommended to planting arenga sugar palm seedlings in sand + clay mixture at equal volumetric parts and irrigating them with 100 %, 75 % or 50 % of F.C. water treatments to produce different sizes from such ornamental palm as pot plants suitable for landscaping the limited places of different areas.</p> Sayed M. Shahin , Reem M. Said , Abla H. Dergham Copyright (c) 2023 © Copyright I.K. Press. All rights reserved. Mon, 07 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Cytokinins on the Vegetative Propagation of Olea europaea L. (cv. Koroneiki) <p>The study was carried out in soil born diseases laboratory, Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection during Mar 2022 to Sep 2022. The Single node explants (prepared from young certificated scions from Fadak garden in Qom province) of Koroneiki olive scions cultured on DKW medium. Culture media were free from PGRs in establishment stage. After the mentioned stage, explant cultured on DKW media fortified with PGRs, in order to presentation a simple and repeatable method for shoot multiplication which is one of the important method for In Vitro olive propagation by examining three item included, the mean shoot length, the mean shoot number and the mean leaf number per explants. PGRs included 1 – 4 mg/l ZEA, KIN, 2ip, TDZ and BA. ZEA and KIN to be superior to other cytokinin in terms of mean shoot length and mean shoot numbers, respectively. All of investigated item especially the mean shoot number and the mean shoot length increased when the concentrations of PGRs increased. The influence of other cytokines (2ip, BA and TDZ) on three above investigated items was different. Supplemented DKW media with 4 mg/l 2ip resulted the maximum number leaf per explants. Callusing and low growth of micro shoots on explants were the dominant responses on DKW media plus 3 mg/l BA. In addition, few weak micro shoots regenerated on DKW media with 4 mg/l TDZ.</p> Firoozeh Chamandoosti Copyright (c) 2023 © Copyright I.K. Press. All rights reserved. Thu, 03 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Zinc and Boron Application Affected a-Fruit Set and Fruit Quality of Date Palm cv. Barhee <p>Barhee trees were facing the major problem as poor fruit set and low fruits quality (Shees fruits) and the low yield due to inadequate pollination, The date palm female trees under experimental study were uniformed under farm management as irrigation, pollination, pruning and soil fertilization with both mineral (N, P, K and S) and organic fertilizers (animal manure) to investigate the influence of boron and zinc to increasing fruit set and yield, zinc 1,2 and 3 g/l and Boron at 1,2 and 3 ml/l as foliar before pollinated inflorescences and soil application at 10,20 and 30 g/tree two times /month. The obtained results revealed that treated trees with Borax spraying at 2 ml/l + Zn 2 g/l as pre pollination with soil application at 20 ml Borax + 20 g/l Zn induced heavy fruit, flesh and seeds with longest fruits that contributed to the biggest bunch weight and total yield/ tree in addition to higher rates of fruit retention and Flesh fruit weight %, fruit acidity and phenols were reduced. So based on the previous results, spraying inflorescences and soil treatments with Borax and Zn were applied for increasing and enhancing fruit quality and maximum yield of date palm cv. Barhee.</p> Darwesh, R. S. S. Rasmia , Mohamed, A. M. , Malhat, M. H. Mervat , Al-Aramany, W. El Deen, H. Rabab Copyright (c) 2023 © Copyright I.K. Press. All rights reserved. Wed, 12 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of BAP (6-Benzylaminopurine) and NAA (α-Napthalene Acetic Acid) treatment on Micropropagation of Adansonia digitata L. <p>The African Baobab, also known as Kalpvriksha (<em>Adansonia digitata</em> L.), is a significant multi-purpose tree that has gained popularity among people, primarily in African countries, for its use as food, fodder, clothing, and ropes. There is one of the obstacle arises in growing this plant by farmers in India is the lack of planting materials. The young plants of <em>A. digitata </em>L. have to be imported form selected nurseries. Therefore, micropropagation can be used as a substitute method to create offspring that are genetically similar to the parent plant. In order to micropropagate Kalpvriksh (<em>A. digitata </em>L.), this experiment is being conducted utilizing shoot tip explants. For shoot proliferation, these explants are grown in MS medium containing various concentrations of BAP (6- Benzylamino purine): 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.5, 5.0 mg/L. Shoots are rooted in a medium containing at the same concentration of NAA (α-Napthalene Acetic Acid) 0.5 mg/L alone or with combination. Complete Randomized Design (CRD) is used to conduct each experiment. ANOVA and the Duncan New Multiple Range test are used to examine the data. According to the technique for micropropagation of <em>A. digitata</em> L. The concentration of BAP and NAA was found to be 1.5 mg/L and 0.5 mg/L respectively which showed better enhancement for shoot regeneration and rooting for micropropagation of Kalpvriksha (<em>Adansonia digitata</em> L.) tree. </p> Mujeeb Ur. Rehman , Manisha Chaudhary , Sandeep Kumar Copyright (c) 2023 © Copyright I.K. Press. All rights reserved. Tue, 04 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Green Synthesis, Characterization, Antioxidant and Photocatalytic Dye Degradation Effects of Copper (Cu) Nanoparticles from the Aqueous Extract of Persea americana <p>Nanoparticles have played a very important role in modern research. This technology involves the synthesis of nanoparticles with controllable size, shape, and material dispersion at nanometer-scale lengths. In the current work, copper nanoparticles have been synthesized by simple green technology using <em>Persea americana</em> leaf extract. The formation of Cu NPs was monitored by recording UV-Vis absorption spectra showing surface plasmon resonance at 320 nm. The green synthetic copper nanoparticles will be further characterized by FT-IR, FESEM, EDS and XRD. FT-IR identified the presence of active groups and phenolic groups. The crystal morphology and size of the nanoparticles will be determined by FESEM and X-ray diffraction studies. It was found that the average particle size of the copper nanoparticles was in the range of 71 nm. These biosynthetic copper nanoparticles were tested for the photocatalytic dye degradation of commercially important textile dyes such as methylene blue The antioxidant activity of green synthesized nanoparticles from the fruit extract was analysed by DPPH-free radical scavenging assay method. The results show that green synthetic nanoparticles have strong dye degradation potential.</p> S. Selvakumar, E. Abirami, K. K. Prapanjan Copyright (c) 2023 © Copyright International Knowledge Press. All rights reserved. Thu, 29 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Cytotoxicity and Apoptotic Inducing Efficacy of Ctenolepsis cerasiformis Extract on Hela Cervical Cancer Cells <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Cancer is a major problem around the world. Now a day’s cervical cancer becomes the most common cause of cancer in women. The early identification and affordable drugs will help to eliminate the seriousness of cancer.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>The <em>in vitro</em> cytotoxicity analysis of chloroform extract of <em>Ctenolepsis cerasiformis </em>was undertaken by the method of MTT assay and the apoptotic activity of the chloroform extract of <em>Ctenolepsis cerasiformis </em>was performed by the flow cytometry analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The chloroform extract of <em>Ctenolepsis cerasiformis</em> shown important antiproliferative action on human cervical cancer cells as compared to the normal Vero cell lines.</p> <p><strong>Discussion: </strong>There is a need to find out the less toxic or no toxic novel anti-proliferative agent from the medicinal plant sources is paramount importance.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Hence, the <em>in vitro </em>cytotoxicity and the apoptotic effects of the chloroform extract of <em>Ctenolepsis cerasiformis</em> on human cervical cancer cell lines such as HeLa cell lines were undertaken.</p> S. Selvakumar , D. Sajusha , P. Divyadharshini , A. J. Vinslin Joe Copyright (c) 2023 © Copyright International Knowledge Press. All rights reserved. Thu, 29 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Genetic Diversity in Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea var. rugosa) Employing SSR Molecular Markers <p>Indian mustard (<em>Brassica juncea</em> var. rugosa) constitutes an authoritative group of mustard crops in India. Evaluation of genetic diversity is a vivacious component of mustard breeding programmes for efficient utilization of plant genetic resources. In present study, 77 microsatellite markers were employed to assess the genetic diversity of 75 Indian mustard genotypes. Results revealed positive amplification for all SSRs, with 21 SSRs exhibiting polymorphic amplicons. A total of 99 alleles, ranging from 3 to 5 with an average of 4.71 alleles per SSR marker were obtained. The major allele frequency varied between 0.26 (cnu/m616) and 0.56 (ENA28F) with an average value of 0.36. The average polymorphic information content (PIC) value was 0.67 and ranged between 0.43 (ENA28F) and 0.76 (gi258660710gbGT071338.1). Mean value of 0.72 was detected for each pair of SSR primers, with the gene diversity per locus ranging between 0.53 (ENA28F) and 0.79 (gi258660710gbGT071338.1). The dendrogram grouped the 75 genotypes into three main clusters or subpopulations based on Unweighted Neighbour-Joining technique. The study revealed better understanding of the genetic diversity among different Indian mustard genotypes using genomic-SSR markers that could be exploited for the genetic improvement of the crop.</p> Aditi Shrivastav, Manoj Kumar Tripathi, Sushma Tiwari, Niraj Tripathi, Prakash N. Tiwari, S. S. Bimal, Poonam Rajpoot, Shailja Chauhan Copyright (c) 2023 © Copyright International Knowledge Press. All rights reserved. Mon, 22 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Biochemical Characterization of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Genotypes <p>Chickpea&nbsp;(<em>Cicer&nbsp;arietinum</em>&nbsp;L.)&nbsp;is one of the most important legumes in the developed as well as developing countries of the world due to its amazing source of dietary proteins. The present experiment was conducted at Research Farm, RVSKVV, College of Agriculture; Gwalior (M.P.).&nbsp; Forty chickpea genotypes were evaluated during <em>Rabi</em> 2020-21 in Randomized block design with two replications. The samples were analyzed for the analysis of peroxidase, Superoxide Dismutase and some of the key biomolecules like total sugars and proline content. The Total sugar ranged from 16.8 mgg<sup>-1</sup> (RVSVT PS-2019- 201) to 24.9 mgg<sup>-1</sup> (RVSVT PS-2019- 214), proline varied from 1.49 μmolg<sup>-1</sup> (RVSVTK-2019- 104) to 2.91 μmolg<sup>-1</sup> (RVSVT PS-2019- 213), superoxide dismutase ranged from 8.2 nmolg<sup>-1</sup> (RVSVT PS-2019- 211) to 20.1nmolg<sup>-1</sup> (RVSVT PS-2019- 205) and lipid peroxide varied from 1.04 nmolg<sup>-1</sup> (RVSVTK-2019-101) to 1.92 nmolg<sup>-1</sup> (RVSVTD-2019- 4, RVSVTD-2019- 10). Findings of the present investigation may help to choose better genotypes with useful biochemical contents for future crop improvement.</p> Shrishtika Rajput , Sudhanshu Jain, Sushma Tiwari, Akash Barela, Shailja Chauhan , Prakash Narayan Tiwari , Neha Gupta , R. S. Sikarwar , Niraj Tripathi , M. K. Tripathi Copyright (c) 2023 © Copyright International Knowledge Press. All rights reserved. Thu, 11 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Antimicrobial Activity of Leaf and Stem Extracts of Adansonia digitata <p>The species of <em>Adansonia Digitata </em>L. (Baobab) is an important multipurpose tree found to possess an enormous range of medicinal properties and can be used for the treatment of various diseases. Powdered leaves and stem of <em>Adansonia digitata</em> were extracted with 100% ethanol and hydro ethanol using the Soxhlet method of extraction. This research was conducted to determine the antimicrobial efficacy of <em>Adansonia digitata</em> stem and leaf extracts. The antimicrobial activity of ethanolic and hydroethanolic leaf, stem extracts of <em>Adansonia digitata</em> has been analyzed. The activity of the extracts of different plant parts against both bacteria and fungi strains were screened through disk diffusion assay along with the crude extract was carried out as control experiments. The antimicrobial activity of the leaf and stem extract of the plants showed that the plant extract used was effective against the different isolates tested. According to our observation, ethanolic extract of leave and stems showed higher antimicrobial activity.</p> Chhavi Goel, Rajiv Dutta Copyright (c) 2023 © Copyright International Knowledge Press. All rights reserved. Mon, 24 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 An Overview of Allele Mining for Crop Improvement: TILLING and Eco-TILLING <p>The primary goal of every plant breeder is to identify gene alleles and then use them in crop improvement programmes. If there is no population variation, there cannot be a breeding programme. Breeders need a lot of labour and money to screen germplasm for a desired gene. Additionally, these screenings are compliant with environmental effects. The method of "allele mining" is employed to identify suitable alleles of a candidate gene affecting important agronomic properties or naturally occurring allelic variations. TILLING and Eco-TILLING are the ideal solutions to this issue for allele mining. A technique known as "tilling" uses mutagens to introduce new diversity in a specific allele. Then, different sequencers are used to screen the diversity in a gene to identify different mutations. The best mutant among them can then be directly used in breeding programmes. In a modified version, alleles of a gene that are present in the population are identified by screening natural populations. Eco-TILLING is the name of this fresh iteration of the technology. The generation of novel haplotypes, the use of molecular markers to characterize genetic diversity and the syntenic links across crop genotypes, as well as marker-assisted selection are just a few of the many applications of allele mining in agriculture and crop improvement. Many genes may be found and used in the breeding of many crop species using these reverse genetics techniques.<em>Allele mining</em></p> Shivangi Tare, Sushma Tiwari, Madhurjit Singh Rathore, M. Yasin, Niraj Tripathi, Prakash Narayan Tiwari, M. K. Tripathi Copyright (c) 2023 © Copyright I.K. Press. All rights reserved. Thu, 20 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000