Main Article Content



Hydrogen is vital when looking at many industrial processes. It is used as a refrigerant and as an essential gas in superconductor research, ultra-cold condition research, hydrogen-electric car, energy generation, space industry, and electricity industry.  Due to the development of photo-voltaic technology, the production of electricity from solar energy has been drastically increased. Because of its inherent fluctuation of solar power dependent on weather conditions, several charging techniques are required. However, there exist major drawbacks when charging the huge amount of electricity. This study was to investigate whether it could be possible to effectively obtain hydrogen from water hydrolysis with electricity generated from the sunlight generators.

Based on our observation, it was concluded that 18.0 ~21.0 volts of electricity were generated in 1200 lux of light intensity, which created an average of 2000 mL hydrogen when the 5% NaCl solution was used as the electrolyte. Four solutions of tap water, 0.1N HCl, 0.1 NaOH and salt solutions were examined to find which solution could be the most effective for producing hydrogen. The result led us to conclude that our hypothesis was accepted seeing the linear relationship of the light intensity and exposure time with hydrogen gas generation. The NaCl solution should be the best solution for water electrolysis using solar energy among the solutions examined in the study. The ratio of hydrogen and oxygen was varied according to each electrolyte solution. More detailed study might be needed for the optimization of maximal hydrogen acquisition. 

Brownlee electrolysis apparatus, hydrogen generation, solar energy, water electrolysis.

Article Details

How to Cite
SONG, H. (2021). EVALUATING THE EFFICIENT WATER ELECTROLYSIS FOR HYDROGEN GENERATION USING SOLAR ENERGY. Journal of Basic and Applied Research International, 1-11. Retrieved from https://ikprress.org/index.php/JOBARI/article/view/5926
Original Research Article


Dolf Gielen, Francisco Boshell, Deger Saygin, Morgan D.Bazilian, Nicholas Wagner, Ricardo Gorini. The role of renewanle energy in the global energy transformation. Energy Strategy Reviews. 2019;24:38-50.

Eduardo Quiles, Carlos Roldan-Blay, Guillermo Escriva-Escriva and Carlos Roldan-Porta. Accurate sizing of residential stand-alone photovoltaic systems considering system reliability. Sustainability. 2020;12(1274):1-18.

Richard Eisenberg, Harry B. Gray, George W. Crabtree. Addressing the challenge of carbon-free enrgy8. PNAS. 2020;117(23):12543-12549.
Available: https://www.pnas.org/content/pnas/117/23/12543.full.pdf.

Gauhar Mussabek, Sergei A. Alekseev, Anton I. Manilov, Sergii Tutashkonko, Tetyana Nychyporuk, Yerkin Shabdan, Gulshat Amirkhanova, Sergei V. Litvinenko, Valeriy A. Skryshevsky, Vladimir Lysenko. Kinetics of hydrogen generation from oxidation of hydrogenated silicon nanocrystals in aqueous solutions. Nanomaterials. 2020;10:1413.
DOI:10.3390/nano10071413, pp. 1-14, 2020.

Ulf Bossel, Baldur Eliasson. Energy and the hydrogen economy. 2020;1-36.
Available: https://afdc.energy.gov/files/pdfs/hyd_economy_bossel_eliasson.pdf.

Marc A. Rosen, Seama Koohi-Fayegh. The prospects for hydrogen as an energy carrier: an overview of hydrogen energy and hydrogen energy systems. Energy, Ecology and Environment. 2016;1(1):10-29.

Zhiyao Lu, Valeriy Cherepakhin, Talya Kapenstein, Travis J. Williams. Upgrading biodiesel from vegetable oils by hydrogen transfer to its fatty esters. ACS Sustain Chem Eng. 2018;6(5):5749-575.

Nazer S, Ahmadi Boyaghchi F. Parametric optimization of PEM electrolyzer integrated with solar multi-generation system based on exergy, cost and environmental criteria. Journal of Solar Energy Research. 25016;1(1):23-33.

Murat Tiryakioglu. The effect of hydrogen on pore formation in aluminum alloy castings: Myth versus reality.Metals. 2020;10:368.
DOI: 10.3390/met10030368.

Anatolii I. Titov, Aleksandr V. Lun-Fu, Aleksandr V. Gayvaronskiy, Mikhail A. Bubenchikov, Aleksei M. Bubenchikov, Andrey M. Lider, Maxim S. Syrtanov, and Viktor N. Kudiiarov. Hydrogen accumulation and distribution in pipeline steel in intensified corrosion conditions. Materials (Basel). 2019;12(9),1409:1-11.

Kaila Morgen Bertsch. Hydrogen effects on the evolution of plastic deformation in polycrystalline nickel: A mechanism for intergranular failure. Dissertation, Doctor of Philosophy in Materials Science and Engineering in the Graduate College of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; 2017.

Abhay Kumar Khairwar, Venkateswarlu G, Mondal NR, Raghavaiah BV. Dissipation of generator thermal losses using safe and sustainable technologies. Impending Power Demand and Innovative Energy Pathsl; 2019. ISBN: 978-83083-84-8.

JJS Technical Services, Hydrogen.

Pedro Oliveira. The elements. Periodic Table Rerences.

Mohsen Sheikholeslami, Davood Domairry Ganji. Chapter 3 – Nanofluid forced convection heat transfer. in Applications of Nanofluid for Heat Transfer Enhancement. 2017;127-193.

Shutaro Takeda, Richard Pearson. Nuclear fusion power plants. Intech Open; 2018.

Brian Bergstein. Finally, fusion power is about to become a reality; 2018.

Jeffrey M. Bergthorson. Recyclable metal fuels for clean and compact zeo-carbon power. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science. 2018;68:169-196.

Iain Staffell, Daniel Scamman, Anthony Valazquez Abad, Paul Balcombe, Paul E. Dodds, Paul Ekins, Nilay Shah, Kate R. Ward.The role of hydrogen and fuel cells in the global energy system. Energy & Environmental Science. 2019;2.

Garth Nicolson, Gonzalo Ferreira, Robert Settineri, Carlos Costa, Rita Ellithorpe, Steven Rosenblatt. Clinical effects of hydrogen administration: From animal and human diseases to exercise medicine. International Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2016;07(01):32-76.

Ergul Belge Kurutas. The importance of antioxidants which play the role in cellular response against oxidative/nitrosative stress: current state. Nutrition Journal. 2016;15:71.

Turgut M. Gur. Review of electrical energy storage technologies, materials and systems: challenges and prospects for large-scale grid storage. Energy & Environmental Science. 2018;10.

Fatih Birol. The future of hydrogen: Seizing today’s opportunities. International Energy Agency; 2019.

Purushothaman Varadhan, Hui-Chun Fu, Yu-Cheng Kao, Ray-Hua Horng, Jr-Hau He. An efficient and stable photoelectrochemical system with 9% solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency via InGaP/GaAs Double Junction. Nature Communications. 2019;10:5282.

Kristian E. Dalle, Julien Warman, Jane J. Leung, Bertrand Reuillar, Isabell S. Karmel, Erwin Reisner. Chemical Reviews. 2919;119(4):2752-2875.

Vignesh Kumaravel, John Bartlett, Suresh C. Pillai. Photoelectrochemical conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) into fuels and value-added products. ACS Energy Letters. 2020;5(2):486-519.

Aroa R. Mainar, Elena Lruin, Luis C. Colmenares, Andriy Kvasha, Iratxe de Meatza, Miguel Bengoechea, Olatz Leonet, Iker Boyano, Zhengcheng Zhang J, Alberto Blazquez. An overview of progress in electrolytes for secondary zinc-air batteries and other storage systems based on zinc. Journal of Energy Storage. 2018;15:304-328.

Long Chen, Xiaoli Dong, Yonggan Wang, Yongyao Xia. Separating hydrogen and oxygen evolution in alkaline water electrolysis using nickel hydroxide. Nature Communications. 2016;7(1).
DOI: 10.1038/ncomms11741.

Ani Avoundjian, Vicente Galvan and Frank A. Gomez. An inexpensive paper-based aluminum-air battery. Micromachines. 2017;8:222.
DOI: 10.3390/mi8070222.