Main Article Content
Bioactive efficacies and functional phytochemical components of garlic bulbs, amaranthus leaves, baobab leaves and tiger nuts have been reported in livestock and human health yet, little is known about their utilisation as mixed additives in laying hens to improve performance. Hence, this study was targeted at evaluating the effects of incorporating processed garlic bulbs, amaranthus leaves, baobab leaves and tiger nuts in formulated layers ration offered to Nera Black hens on production characteristics and egg quality. To achieve this, processed garlic bulbs, amaranthus leaves, baobab leaves and tiger nuts were included proportionally in formulated layers ration and offered to 240 Nera Black hens at 22 weeks old weighing between 1.3kg and 1.6kg. During the 6 weeks study, weight gain, feed utilisation, hen day production and egg quality were monitored in five experimental groups consisting of 48 hens each. The experimental groups were designated as T1 (control): without nutraceaticals; T2: garlic bulbs (0.5%) and amaranthus leaves (2.0%); T3: garlic bulbs (0.5%) and baobab leaves (2.0%); T4: garlic bulbs (0.5%) and tiger nuts (2.0%) and T5: garlic bulbs (0.5%), amaranthus leaves (0.67%), baobab leaves (0.67%) and tiger nuts (0.67%). Results showed that the weight gain was highest (1.9kg) in T5, followed by 1.82kg in control but the feed was better utilised in control (1.23), T3 (1.24) and T2 (1.25). The egg weight was best (47.68 – 49.87g) among the treated hens compared to 43.98g recorded in control hens. Hen day production was superior in T5 (20.76%) compared to 17.15% recorded in control. Eggshell weight was seemingly enhanced in the treated hens with values ranging from 4.58–5.08g, compared to 4.39g recorded in control. The yolk height (0.89cm), albumen pH (9.22), yolk pH (6.75) and Haugh unit (135.92HU) were highest in T5. Values of all the parameters across the treatments, somewhat compared favourably well with reference values reported so, garlic bulbs, amaranthus leaves, baobab leaves and tiger nuts in layers ration, may enhance performance with little or no deleterious effects.
Radwan NL, Hassan RA, Qota EM, Fayek HM. Effect of natural antioxidant on oxidative stability of eggs and productive and reproductive performance of laying hens. Intl J Poult Sci 2008; 7(2):134-150.
Diara SS, Kwari ID, Girigigi YA, Saleh B, Igwebuike JU. The use of sorrel (Hibiscus sabdariffa) feed ingredient for poultry: A Review Research opinions in Animal Science and Veterinary Science. 2011;1: 573-577.
Abd El-Motaal AM, Ahmed AMH, Bahakaim ASA, Fathi MM. Productive performance and immunocompetence of commercial laying hens given diets supplemented with eucalyptus. Int J Poult Sci. 2008;7:445-449.
Bölükbaşi ŞC, Erhan MK. Effect of dietary thyme (Thymus vulgaris) on laying hen performance and Escherichia coli (E. coli) concentration in faeces. Int J Nat Eng Sci. 2007;1:55-58.
Manesh MK. Influence of germander (Teucrium polium) and watercress (Nasturtium Offinale) extract on performance, carcass quality and blood metabolites of broilers. Res. Opin Anim Vet Sci. 2012;2:67-71.
Falodun A, Okunrobo LO, Uzoamaka N. Phytochemical screening and anti-inflammatory evaluation of methanolic and aqueous extracts of Euphorbia heterophylla Linn (Euphorbiaceae). African Journal of Biotechnology. 2006;5(6):529-531.
Bhagyalakshmi N, Thimmaraju R, Venkatachalam L, Murthy KNC, Sreedhar RV. Nutraceutical applications of garlic and the intervention of biotechnology. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 2005;45:607-621.
Nwadiaro PO, Nwachukwu I. Inhibition of Pathogenic Fungi by ethnobotanical extracts of Cymbopogon citrates, Ceiba pentandra and Loranthus bengwelensis. Nig J Biotechnol 2007; 18(1-2): 61-65.
Banso A, Olutimayin T. Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Evaluation of aqueous extracts of Daniella oliveri and Nauclea latifolia. Nig J Biotechnol. 2001;12(1):114-118.
Bozkurt M, Küçükyılmaz K, Çatlı AU, Çınar M. Effect of dietary mannan oligosaccharide with or without oregano essential oil and hop extract supplementation on the performance and slaughter characteristics of male broilers. S/A J Anim Sci. 2009;39(3):223-232.
Szczerbińska D, Tarasewicz Z, Sulik M, Kopczyńska E, Pyka B. Effect of the diet with common flax and black cumin seeds on quail performance and reproduction results. Animal Science Papers and Reports. 2012;30(3):261-269.
Biesiada-Drzazga B, Janocha A. Impact of hen breed and rearing system on the quality of eggs for consumption. Food Science Technology Quality. 2009;3(64):67-74.
Hashemi SR, Zulkifli I, Davoodi H, Hair‐Bejo M, Zunita Z. Effects of Euphorbia hirta and acidifiers supplement on resistance of broiler chickens against Salmonella enteritidis infection: Oral challenge model. Iran J Anim Sci. 2015;5(4):949-956.
Franco-Jimenez DJ, Beck MM. Physiological changes to transient exposure to heat stress observed in laying hens. Poult Sci. 2007;86:538-544.
Guo FC, Williams BA, Kwakkel RP, Li HS, Li XP, Luo JY, Li WK and Verstegen MWA. Effect of mushroom and herb polysaccharides as alternative for antibiotic of cecal microbial ecosystem in broiler chicken. Poult Sci. 2004;83:175–182.
NIMET. Nigeria Metrological Agencies, Synoptic Office, Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria; 2011.
Kolawole FSO, Folake AO. Egg traits and productive performance of Isa-Brown laying hens fed garlic supplemented diets. Asian J Appl Sci. 2019;4:398-403.
Ani AO, Oyeagu CE. Effect of feed type on performance of Nera Black hens in the humid tropical environment. British Journal of Applied Science and Technology. 2015;10(1):1-12.
Martínez Y, Escalona A, Martínez O, Olmo C, Rodríguez R, Maidelys I., Betancur C, Valdivié M, Liu G. The use of Anacardium occidentale as nutraceutical in hypoprotein diets for laying hens. Cuban J. Agric Sci. 2012;46:395-401.
Haugh RR. The Haugh unit for measuring egg quality. USA Egg Poult. Magazine. 1993;43:552-555.
Williams C. Some factors affecting albumen quality with particular reference to Haugh Unit Score. World’s Poult Sci J. 1992;48:5-16.
SPSS. Statistical package for Social Sciences, SPSS Inc., 444. Michigan Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611: 2010.
Sarker U, Oba S. Nutraceuticals, antioxidant pigments, and phytochemicals in the leaves of Amaranthus spinosus and Amaranthus viridis weedy species. Scientific Reports. 2019;9:20413. Available:https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-50977-5
Chisoroa P, Kagurua T, Assanb N. Baobab seeds as an alternative protein source in poultry feed. Scientific Journal of Review. 2017;6(1):509-518.
Ekeanyanwu RC, Ononogbu CI. Nutritive value of Nigerian tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus L.). Agricultural Journal. 2010;5:297-302.
Merck. Nutrition and management: nutritional requirements of poultry. MSD Manual/Veterinary Manual. Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., a subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA 2020.
INRA Laying hen nutrition for optimizing egg production and quality. Zootecnica International 2017.
Olomu JM. Monogastric Animal Nutrition. Principles and Practice (2nd edn). St. Jackson Publication: Benin City, Nigeria. 2011: 478.
NRC. Nutrient requirements of chickens." National Research Council. Nutrient requirements of poultry, NRC, Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 1994.
Imouokhome JI, Ojogho O. Comparative performance of Bovans Nera (Rhode Black) and other commercial pullet strains. Notulae Scientia Biologicae. 2012;4(3):21-26.
Abeke FO, Sekoni AA, Oni OO, Adeyinka IA, Nwagu BI. Response of Shika–Brown pullet chicks and layers to homemade and commercial feeds in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria. Agro-Science Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food, Environment and Extension. 2008;7(3):223-228.
Pantaya D, Utami MMD. The blood haematological profile on laying hens that were treated by different levels of yeast supplementation. Earth Environ Sci. 2018;207:012033.
USDA. Sizing of eggs. United States Department of Agriculture, USDA, Food Safety and Inspection Service.
Accessed in April 2020
Abd El-Hack ME, Alagawany M, Mahrose KM, Arif M, Saeed M, Arain MA, Soomro RN, Siyal FA, Fazlani SA, Fowler J. Productive performance, egg quality, haematological parameters and serum chemistry of laying hens fed diets supplemented with certain fat-soluble vitamins, individually or combined, during summer season. Animal Nutrition. 2019;5:49-55.
Rocculi P, Cocci E, Sirri F, Cevoli C, Romani S, Rosa MD. Modified atmosphere packaging of hen table eggs: Effects on functional properties of albumen. Poult Sci. 2011;90:1791-1798.
Silversides FG, Budgell K. The relationships among measures of egg albumen height, pH and whipping volume. Poult Sci. 2004;83:1619-1623.
Joke S, Susan A. Beverage of Champaign Http//Tune-Blog.com 2007.