EFFECT OF PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS ON FEMALE FLOWER DEVELOPMENT AND PRODUCTIVITY OF WATERMELON PLANTS GROWN DURING WINTER SEASON WITH LOW-TECH GREENHOUSE
Journal of Global Ecology and Environment,
Temperature generally falls below the threshold limit of the watermelon plants during the winter which is a prime hindrance to cultivate it in this season in Bangladesh. Although low-tech greenhouse which made of bamboo or wooden structure and polyethylene film as a cladding material significantly increases temperature, but watermelon plants grown under low-tech could not initiate pistillate flowers rather than sufficient vegetative and male flower development were observed. The present study was carried out under the low-tech greenhouse from middle of October 2017 to middle of February 2018 in the Field Laboratory, Department of Crop Botany, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh 2202, Bangladesh to investigate whether the some plant growth regulators (PGRs) like ‘ethephon’ and ‘flora’ could develop the female flowers and fruit setting with fruit yield in four varieties of watermelon viz. Sonya, Black Dorin, Badsha and Dragon. The watermelon plants grown both in low-tech plants and that at outside were treated (sprayed) at earlier development stages with (i) no PGR (control), (ii) Flora, and (iii) Ethephon. Air and soil temperatures increased inside the low-tech than that aside outside which significantly hastened all the phenophase events like appearance of first vine, leaf, male and female flowers. Both the PGRs exerted the positive effect on the female flower development and fruit setting as well as yield components and fruit yield. However, the effect of ethephon was found as satisfactory. Therefore, it is concluded that spraying of ethephon at earlier growth stages could offer satisfactory fruit yield of watermelon under low-tech greenhouse during winter season in Bangladesh. The output is a combine effect where low-tech offers warmer microclimate for sufficient vine growth and development, and ethephon induces female flowering leading to get satisfactory fruit yield.
- low-tech greenhouse
- pistillate flower
- plant growth regulator ( PGR )
How to Cite
Galun E. 1959. Effects of gibberellic acid and naphthaleneacetic acid on sex expression and some morphological characters in the cucumber plant. Phyton (Buenos Aires). 1959;13:1-8.
Peterson CE, Anhder LD. 1960. Induction of staminate flowers on gynoecious cucumbers with gibberellin A3. Science. 1960;131 (3414):1673-1674. Available:https://doi.org/10.1126/science.131.3414.1673.
Halevy AH, Rudich J. Modification of sex expression in muskmelon by treatment with the growth retardant B-995. Physiologia Plantarum (Cph.). 1967;20:1052-1058.
Pike LM, Peterson CE. Gibberellin A4/A7, for induction of staminate flowers on the gynoecious cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Euphytica. 1969;18:106-109.
Rudich J, Halevy AH, Kedar N. Ethylene evolution from cucumber plants as related to sex expression. Plant Physiology. 1972a; 49:998-999.
Rudich J, Halevy AH, Kedar N. The level of phytohormones in monoecious and gynoecious cucumbers as affected by photoperiod and ethephon. Plant Physiology. 1972b;50:585- 590.
Trebitsh T, Rudich J, Riov J. Auxin, biosynthesis of ethylene and sex expression in cucumber (Cucumis sativus). Plant Growth Regulation. 1987;5:105-113.
Wien HC. The cucurbits: cucumber, melon, squash and pumpkin. In: Wien HC. (Ed), The Physiology of Vegetable Crops. CAB International, New York. 1997;345-386.
Nitsch JP. Physiology of flower and fruit development. In: Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology. 1965;15(1):1537-1647.
Galun E, Izhar S, Atsmon D. Determination of relative auxin content in hermaphrodite and andromonoecious Cucumis sativus L. Plant Physiology. 1965;40:321-326
Atsmon D, Lang A, Light EN. Contents and Recovery of Gibberellins in Monoecious and Gynoecious Cucumber Plants. Plant Physiology. 1968;43:806-810.
Peterson CE. Gynoecious muskmelons for hybrid seed production. 60th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Horticultural Science. 1963. Abstract no. 332.
Bukovac MJ, Wittwer SH. Gibberellin modification of sex expression in Cucumis sativus L. Advances in Chemistry Series. 1961;28:80-88.
Iwahori S, Lyons JM, Smith OE. Sex expression in cucumber plants as affected by 2-Chloroethylphosphonic acid, ethylene, and growth regulators. Plant Physiology. 1970;46: 412-415.
Rudich J, Halevy AH, Kedar N. Increase in femaleness of three cucurbits by treatment with ethrel, an ethylene releasing compound. Planta. 1969;86(1):69-76. Available:https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00385305.
Manzano S, Martínez C, Megías Z, Garrido D, Jamilena M. Involvement of ethylene biosynthesis and signalling in the transition from male to female flowering in the monoecious Cucurbita pepo. Jourbal of Plant Growth Regulation. 2013;32:789-798.
Byers RE, Baker LR, Sell HM, Herner RC, Dilley DR. Ethylene: A natural regulator of sex expression of Cucumis melo L. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA. 1972;69(3):717-720.
Den Nijs APM, Visser DL. Induction of male flowering in gynoecious cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.) by silver ions. Euphytica. 1980; 29:273-280.
Owens KW, Peterson CE, Tolla GE. Production of hermaphrodite flowers on gynoecious muskmelon by silver nitrate and aminoethyoxyvinylglycine. HortScience. 1980; 15:654-655.
Rudich J. Biochemical aspects of hormonal regulation of sex expression in Cucurbits. In: Bates DM, Robinson RW, Jeffrey C. (Eds), Biology and Utilization of the Cucurbitaceae. 1990. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY, pp. 269-280.
Payan MC, Penaranda A, Rosales R, Garrido D, Gomez P, Jamilena M, Holmes GJ. Ethylene mediates the induction of fruits with attached flower in zucchini squash. In: Holmes GJ. (Ed), Proceedings of Cucurbitaceae. Universal Press, Raleigh, NC. 2006;171 -179.
Manzano S, Martínez C, Megías Z, Gómez P, Garrido D, Jamilena M. The role of ethylene and brassinosteroids in the control of sex expression and flower development in Cucurbita pepo. Plant Growth Regulation. 2011;65:213-221.
Jie Z, Jianting S, Gaojie J, Haiying Z, Guoyi G, Shaogui G, Yi R, Jianguang F, Shouwei T, Yong X. Modulation of sex expression in four forms of watermelon by gibberellin, ethephone and silver nitrate. Horticultural Plant Journal. 2017;3(3):91-100. Available:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hpj.2017.07.010.
Awal MA, Dhar PC, Pramanik MHR. Development of suitable microclimate using low˗tech greenhouse for off-season production of high value crops in Bangladesh. European Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences. 2021;3(6):95-103. Available:https://doi.org/10.24018/ejfood.2021.3.6.414.
Awal MA, Dhar PC. Morpho-physiological and vine development, flowering and sex expression of watermelon grown in winter season under low-tech greenhouse. Journal of Global Ecology and Environment. 2021;13(4):55-67.
Dhar PC, Awal MA. Effect of vine clipping on flowering and sex expression in watermelon plant during winter season with ambient and elevated temperature by low-tech greenhouse. Journal of Global Ecology and Environment; 2021;13(4):90-101.
Manzano S, Martínez C, García JM, Megías Z, Jamilena M. Involvement of ethylene in sex expression and female flower development in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus). Plant Physiology and Biochemistry. 2014;85:96-104. Available:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2014.11.004.
Ogden AB, Van Iersel MW. Southern highbush blueberry production in high tunnels: temperatures, development, yield, and fruit quality during the establishment years. Horticulture Science. 2009;44:1850-1856.
Singh A, Syndor A, Deka BC, Singh RK, Singh RK, Patel RK. The effect of microclimate inside low tunnels on off season production of strawberry (Frageria × Anamosa Duch.). Scientia Horticulturae. 2012;144:36-41.
Zhao Y, Gu M, Evans GB, Harkess R. Planting date effect on yield of tomato, eggplant, pepper, zinnia, and snapdragon in high tunnel in Mississippi. Journal of Crop Improvements. 2014;28:27-37. Available:https://doi.org/10.1080/15427528.2013.858283.
Jinu A, Abdul Hakkim VM. Performance of a low cost automation system for greenhouse cooling. International Journal of Current Research. 2018;10(08):72158-72163.
Job M. Study on changes in microclimatic parameters under poly-house with different color plastic mulching during tomato cultivation. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 2018;SP1:689-694.
Awal MA, Khan MAH. Alteration of soil temperature and moisture through mulching on the morpho-physiological differentiation in maize. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences. 1999;2(4):1164-1167. Available:https://doi.org/10.3923/pjbs.1999.1164.1167.
Awal MA, Khan MAH. Mulch induced eco-physiological growth and yield of maize. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences. 2000;2(4):61-64. Available:https://doi.org/10.3923/pjbs.2000.61.64.
Arora JS, Amanpreet K, Shidu GS. Performance of carnation in polyhouse. Journal of Ornamental Horticulture. New Series. 2002;5(2):58.
Kanthaswamy V, Singh N, Veeraragavathatham D, Srinivasan K, Thiruvudainambi S. Studies on growth and yield of cucumber and sprouting broccoli under polyhouse condition. South Indian Horticulture. 2000;48(1/6):47-52.
Srivastava P, Srivastava BK, Singh MP. Effect of date of planting and growing environment on the plant survival, growth and yield of early cauliflower in rainy season. Vegetable Science. 2002;29(2):157-160.
Awal MA, Ikeda T. Effect of elevated soil temperature on radiation-use efficiency in peanut stands. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 2003;118(1-2):63- 74. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1923(03)00070-4.
Parvej MR, Khan MAH, Awal MA. Phenological development and productive potentials of tomato under polyhouse climate. The Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 2010; 5:19-31.
Dixit A, Rai N, Kumar V. Effect of plant growth regulators on growth, earliness and sex ratio in watermelon under Chhattisgarh region. Indian Journal of Agricultural Research. 2001; 35(1):66-68.
Oh J. Growth regulator effects on watermelon chilling resistance, flowering, and fruiting. Master’s Thesis, submitted to the Graduate Faculty of North Carolina State University; 2008.
Salman-Minkov A, Trebitsh T. Characterization of watermelon fruitlet development. Cucurbitaceae 2008, Proceedings of the IXth EUCARPIA meeting on genetics and breeding of Cucurbitaceae (Pitrat M, ed), INRA, Avignon (France); 2008.
Chaudhary DC, Patel NM, Prajapati BH. Effect of various plant growth substances on economics of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Thunb Mansf.) cv. Durgapura Lal (RW-177-3). International Journal of Engineering Science and Computing. 2016;6(6):7325- 7326.
Burg SP, Apelbaum A, Eisinger W, Kang BG. Physiology and mode of action of ethylene. Hortscience. 1971;6:359-364.
FAO. Joint meeting of the FAO panel of experts on pesticide residues in food and the environment. United Nations of Food and Agriculture Organization; 1994.
Extension Toxicology Net. Pesticide Information Profiles: Ethephon; 1995. Available:http://extoxnet.orst.edu/pips/ethephon.htm; accessed on 20 December 2021.
Weir BL, Gaggero JM. Ethephon may hasten cotton boll opening, increase yield. California Agriculture;1982. Available:https://calag.ucanr.edu/archive/?type=pdf&article=ca.v036n09p28; accessed on 20 December 2021.
Kohombange S, Gunasekera HKLK, Kirindigoda S. Effect of various concentrations of nitrobenzene on bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) yield under green house condition. Journal of Horticulture. 2017;4:219. Available:http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2376-0354.1000219.
Aziz MA, Miah MAM. Effect of “Flora” on the growth and yield of wetland rice. Journal of Agriculture & Rural Development. 2009;7 (1&2):9-13.
Farlane CMc, Pfleeger T, Fletcher J. Effect, uptake and disposition of nitrobenzene in several terrestrial plants. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 1990;9(4):513-520. Available:https://doi.org/10.1002/etc.5620090415.
Singh Y, Singh M, Saxena SR, Mohammad K. Plant growth nutrient (nitrobenzene) poisoning with multiple complications. Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences. 2015;3(1):97-100.
Abstract View: 180 times
PDF Download: 4 times