Main Article Content
There is sufficient evidence supporting the fact that climate change and variability are pervasive realities that are strongly impacting both human and natural systems, including conservation of edible orchids in Southern Highland of Tanzania. The focus of the study was to investigate the role of climate variability and/or climate change as well as underlying non-climate factors negatively affecting conservation of edible orchids, as well as exploring potential approaches and strategic interventions for enhancing conservation of these edible orchids in Makete district.
Both quantitative and qualitative data collection methods were used to obtain data involving smallholder farmers as well as government officials and local communities. Primary data collection was undertaken in two phases, with phase one using participatory tools (e.g. focus group discussions, community mapping and transect walk, and historical timelines). Data collected include climatic and climatic information on farmers’ perceptions and adaptation strategies. Phase two involved detailed individual interviews (questionnaire surveys) and key informant interviews, to obtain in-depth information on issues of interest. Secondary data were collected from existing statistical sources, literature surveys in archives, libraries and documentation centers, and from government agencies (e.g. TMA and local government authorities). Results are presented in descriptive form: tables, figures and graphs. The data were analysed using SPSS and presented in tables, graphs and statistics while qualitative information is presented in quotations.
Results from selected meteorological station and community perceptions indicate that there has been an increase in average maximum temperatures, and both dry and wet years with varying magnitudes during the past four decades. Other climatic stresses include late onset and late cessation of rainfall in both short and long rain seasons. This study found that there are threats for extinction of edible orchid species due to climate change impacts i.e. increase of temperature and decline of rainfall challenging conservation of the orchids. In addition, the study identified several non-climate factors affecting the conservation of edible orchids including expansion of agriculture, population growth and deforestation. Through the findings, it is concluded that the conservation of edible orchid species is increasingly becoming a serious challenge and that both climate and non climate factors are exacerbating the challenge. To enhance sustainable conservation of the orchids, this study recommends promotion of conservation education and awareness creation. Likewise, domestication and restoration of edible orchids is recommended to reduce the risk of its extinction. Finally, promotion of alternative income generating activities in the area will be useful in reducing the pressure and demand of edible orchids in the study area.
Barman D, Devadas R. Climate change on orchid population and conservation strategies: A review. Journal of Crop and Weed. 2013;9(2):1–12.
Bingham MG. Chikanda trade in Zambia. Orchid Conserv News. 2004;4:22–25.
Brown JM. Fire effects on pollinators and pollination, University of Melbourne 1-126. Capacity, B. A., African, M., & River, T. (n d.). Towards Climate Change Adaptation; 2016.
Challe JFX, Price LL. Endangered edible orchids and vulnerable gatherers in the context of HIV/AIDS in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine; 2009. Available:https://doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-5-41
Cribb PJ, Kell SP, Dixon KW, Barrett RL. Orchid conservation: a global perspective. Pages 1–24 in K. W. Dixon, S. P. Kell, R. L. Barrett, & P. J. Cribb (eds.). Orchid conservation. Natural History Publications, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah; 2003.
Davenport TRB, Ndangalasi HJ. An escalating trade in orchid tubers across Tanzania’s Southern Highlands: Assessment, dynamics and conservation implications. Oryx. 2003;37(1):55–61. Available:https://doi.org/10.1017/ S0030605303000127
Ehrhart C, Twena M. Climate change and poverty in Mozambique: realities and responses options for CARE. Background Report for the CARE International Poverty-Climate Change Initiative, (November). 2006;33.
Fay MF. Orchid conservation: how can we meet the challenges in the twenty first century? Botanical Studies; 2018. Available:https://doi.org/10.1186/s40529-018-0232-z
Flannigan MD, Cantin AS, de Groot WJ, Wotton M, Newbery A, Gowman LM. Global wildland fire severity in the 21st century. For. Ecol. Manage. 2013;294:54–61.
Foster P. The potential negative impacts of global climatic change on tropical montane cloud forests. Earth Sci. Rev. 2001;55:73-06
Gateri MW, Muriuki AW, Gikaara DM. Diversity of Kenyan Orchids (Orchidaceae) and Potential Ornamental Value for Human Well Being; 2015.
Gravendeel B. Efforts Urged to Tackle Thriving Illegal Orchid Trade in Tanzania and Zambia for Chikanda Production, Traffic Bulletin. 2014;26(2) :47–50.
Hamisy WC. Development of Conservation Strategies for the Wild Edible Orchid in Tanzania. Progress report for the Rufford Small Grants Foundation. 2007;25.
Hamisy WC, Plant N, Resources G. Orchid conservation project Tanzania, (November). 2007; 1–25.
IPCC. Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Core Writing Team, Pachauri, R.K and Reisinger, A. (Eds.)]. IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland. 2007;104.
IPCC. Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Core Writing Team, R.K. Pachauri and L.A. Meyer (Eds.). IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland. 2014;151.
IUCN. The IUCN red list of threatened species. 2017;2017-2. Available:http://www.iucnredlist.org/ Accessed 25 Sep 2017.
IUCN/SSC Orchid Specialist Group. Orchids - Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN, Gland Switzerland and Cambridge, UK; 1996.
Kasulo V, Mwabumba L, Munthali C. A review of edible orchids in Malawi. Department of Forestry, Mzuzu University, P/Bag 201, Muzu 2, Malawi; 2009.
Lalika MCS, Mende H, Urio P, Gimbi M, Stewart J, Donati G. Domestication Potential and Nutrient Composition of Wild Orchids from Two Southern Regions in Tanzania. Times Journal of Biological Sciences and Technology, 1(August). 2013;1–11.
Liu H, Feng CL, Luo YB, Chen BS, Wang ZS, Gu HY. Potential challenges of climate change to orchid conservation in a Wild Orchid Hotspot in Southwestern China. Botanical Review. 2010;76(2):174–192. Available:https://doi.org/10.1007/s12229-010-9044-x
Liwenga ET. Food Insecurity and Coping Strategies in semi-arid Areas. The Case of Mvumi in Central Tanzania. Doctoral dissertation, Department of Human Geography, Stockholm University; 2003.
Mkwizu KHM. Promoting Kitulo National Park as a Wildflower Tourism Destination in Tanzania: Analysis of Media Channels and Gender among Domestic Tourists, International Journal of Innovative Research & Development. 2016;5(10):388-393.
Mwakalila S. Climate Variability, Impacts and Adaptation Strategies: The Case of Mbeya and Makete Districts in Great Ruaha Catchment in Tanzania. 2014;43–48.
National Council Research. Climate Change Evidence, Impacts, and Choices. The National Academies Press; 2012. Available:https://doi.org/10.17226/14673
Ndaki PM. Climate change adaptation for smallholder farmers in rural communities: The case of Mkomazi Sub-Catchment, Tanzania. PhD Thesis, Oldenburg, Germany: BIS-Verlag, Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg; 2014.
Nelson EJ, Kareiva P, Ruckelshaus M, Arkema K, Geller G, Girvetz E, et al. Climate change’s impact on key ecosystem services and the human well-being they support in the US. Front Ecol Environ. 2013;11(9):483–493.
Nyomora AMS. Distribution and Abundance of the Edible Orchids of the Southern Highlands of Tanzania. Botany Department, University of Dar es Salaam; 2005.
Nyomora A. Distribution and abundance of the edible orchids of the southern highlands of Tanzania. Tanzania Journal of Science. 2009;31(1):45–54. Available:https://doi.org/10.4314/tjs.v31i1.18408
Pauline N. Living with climate variability and change: lessons from Tanzania. A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of Science, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy; 2015.
Shashidhar KS, Arun Kumar AN. Effect of climate change on orchids and their conservation strategies. The Indian Forester. 2009;135(8):1039–1049.
URT. Makete District Council Socio-Economic Profile, 2011. Ministry of Finance, National Bureau of Statistics,Tanzania; 2013.
Veldman S, Gravendee B, Otieno J, Lammers Y, Duijm E, Nieman A, et al. High-throughput sequencing of African Chikanda cake highlights conservation challenges in orchids. Biodivers Conserv. 2017;26:2029–2046.
Wilcove DS, McLellan CH, Dobson AP. Habitat fragmentation in the temperate zone. Pages 237-256 in E. Soulé (ed.), Conservation biology: The science of scarcity and diversity. Sinauer, Sunderland, Massachusetts; 1986.