CHALLENGES POSED BY CLIMATE CHANGE AND NON-CLIMATE FACTORS ON CONSERVATION OF EDIBLE ORCHID IN SOUTHERN HIGHLANDS OF TANZANIA: THE CASE OF MAKETE DISTRICT

Main Article Content

PATRICK M. NDAKI
FIDELIS ERICK
VICTORIA MOSHY

Abstract

There is sufficient evidence supporting the fact that climate change and variability are pervasive realities that are strongly impacting both human and natural systems, including conservation of edible orchids in Southern Highland of Tanzania. The focus of the study was to investigate the role of climate variability and/or climate change as well as underlying non-climate factors negatively affecting conservation of edible orchids, as well as exploring potential approaches and strategic interventions for enhancing conservation of these edible orchids in Makete district.

Both quantitative and qualitative data collection methods were used to obtain data involving smallholder farmers as well as government officials and local communities. Primary data collection was undertaken in two phases, with phase one using participatory tools (e.g. focus group discussions, community mapping and transect walk, and historical timelines). Data collected include climatic and climatic information on farmers’ perceptions and adaptation strategies. Phase two involved detailed individual interviews (questionnaire surveys) and key informant interviews, to obtain in-depth information on issues of interest. Secondary data were collected from existing statistical sources, literature surveys in archives, libraries and documentation centers, and from government agencies (e.g. TMA and local government authorities). Results are presented in descriptive form: tables, figures and graphs. The data were analysed using SPSS and presented in tables, graphs and statistics while qualitative information is presented in quotations.

Results from selected meteorological station and community perceptions indicate that there has been an increase in average maximum temperatures, and both dry and wet years with varying magnitudes during the past four decades. Other climatic stresses include late onset and late cessation of rainfall in both short and long rain seasons. This study found that there are threats for extinction of edible orchid species due to climate change impacts i.e. increase of temperature and decline of rainfall challenging conservation of the orchids. In addition, the study identified several non-climate factors affecting the conservation of edible orchids including expansion of agriculture, population growth and deforestation. Through the findings, it is concluded that the conservation of edible orchid species is increasingly becoming a serious challenge and that both climate and non climate factors are exacerbating the challenge. To enhance sustainable conservation of the orchids, this study recommends promotion of conservation education and awareness creation. Likewise, domestication and restoration of edible orchids is recommended to reduce the risk of its extinction. Finally, promotion of alternative income generating activities in the area will be useful in reducing the pressure and demand of edible orchids in the study area. 

Keywords:
Orchid, climate factors, natural systems, Tanzania

Article Details

How to Cite
NDAKI, P. M., ERICK, F., & MOSHY, V. (2021). CHALLENGES POSED BY CLIMATE CHANGE AND NON-CLIMATE FACTORS ON CONSERVATION OF EDIBLE ORCHID IN SOUTHERN HIGHLANDS OF TANZANIA: THE CASE OF MAKETE DISTRICT. Journal of Global Ecology and Environment, 13(4), 144-167. Retrieved from https://ikprress.org/index.php/JOGEE/article/view/7301
Section
Original Research Article

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