The present study has described and illustrated Lepiota pseudofelina J.E. Lange ex J.E. Lange, Basidiomycetes, which is considered one of the fungal species harvested for the first time in Morocco under Acacia trees in the Mamora forest.
The therapeutic herbs Dicorea bulbifera L. and Apium graveolens L. consists bioactive substances that are used for the treatment of different human illnesses and play a significant role in the treatment process. The primary objective of the research was to test the phytochemical composition in both the medicinal herbs. The plant material was extracted with water and the crude obtained was qualitatively analysed for phyto constituents. The findings of the study showed the presence of terpenoids, phenol, tannin, alkaloid, steroid, proteins and carbohydrates in both the plant extracts. This study concludes that, the medicinal properties of the herbs are due to the effects of naturally occurring substances such as alkaloids, proteolytic enzymes, flavonoids and many others.
Developing countries relies highly on traditional medicines. Herbal remedies include the use of various extracts of plants or biologically active components. This form of research offers manageable benefits for medical purposes. In order to evaluate the primary chemical compounds in Senna siamea, this study has been carried out. The results revealed the presence of larger hydrophilic sugars, proteins, benzene, sodium ascorbate in petals and enzymes in chutes. Test solvents found a peak extractive quality in alcoholic extract. In water and ethanol extracts, all the metabolites were qualitatively estimated and the results exhibit the presence of wide range of photochemical.
Present study was carried out to evaluate the bio-efficacy of ready-mix herbicide fenoxaprop (5%) + Chlorimuron (0.6%) + Pretilachlor (50%) ME against complex weed flora in transplanted rice (cv. Sahbaghi) at Agricultural Farm, Institute of Agriculture, Visva-Bharati, West Bengal, India during 2017 and 2018. There were ten weed management treatments. The transplanted rice field was infested with grassy weeds like Echinochloa crus-galli and Panicum repens, sedges like Cyperus iria, Cyperus difformis, Fimbristylis miliacae and Cyperus rotundus and broad leaved weeds like Eclipta alba, Ludwigia parviflora, Marsilea quadrifolia and Monochoria vaginalis. The results revealed that ready-mix application of fenoxaprop (5%) + Chlorimuron (0.6%) + Pretilachlor (50%) ME at 1200 and 1000 ml ha-1 gave higher weed control efficiency against grassy weeds, broad leaved weeds and sedges. Both doses of fenoxaprop + chlorimuron + pretilachlor were better than chlorimuron ethyl, fenoxaprop-p-ethyl, pretilachlor and pyrazosulfuron ethyl. Fenoxaprop + Chlorimuron + Pretilachlor at 1200 ml ha-1 and 1000 ml ha-1 resulted into the higher plant height, number of filled grain panicle-1, panicle length and grain yield (6301 and 6274 kg ha-1). Both were superior to its lower doses (800 ml ha-1) and chlorimuron ethyl, fenoxaprop-p-ethyl, pretilachlor and pyrazosulfuron ethyl during both the years. Weeds allowed to grow throughout the crop season reduced the grain yield to the extent of 33.9%.
Background: The evolution of multidrug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae is a global threat in treating nosocomial infections. Carbapenem resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) are a group of emerging highly drug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli that produces class A, B and D beta lactamases which help in hydrolyzing carbapenems thereby warranting alternate drug therapy. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of CRKP phenotypically and genotypically.
Methods: The identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing of K. pneumoniae isolates were performed by vitek 2 systems version 7.0 as per CLSI guidelines. Phenotypic detection of carbapenemase was performed by combined-disc test using meropenem alone and with both phenyl boronic acid and EDTA. Genotypic detection was performed by multiplex PCR and conventional PCR. The blaKPC, blaNDM, blaOXA-48, blaIMP, blaVIM, blaSPM, blaGIM and blaSIM genes were screened.
Results: The MIC value obtained for carbapenems by vitek 2 showed carbapenem resistance in 19 isolates. All these isolates were positive phenotypically. While, only 11 isolates were positive genotypically showing blaNDM (n=2), blaOXA-48 (n=7) and blaIMP (n=4) gene. All the isolates were susceptible to colistin. Most of the isolates were resistant to cephalosporins and significant resistance to tigecycline was also observed.
Conclusion: The emergence and spread of CRKP is a global threat which hampers the effective control of infections particularly in developing countries. The present study has shown a low prevalence (9.09%) of carbapenem resistance. However the resistance of clinically isolated carbapenem resistant strains can primarily be ascribed to production of carbapenemases there are also other mechanisms like deletion of OMP proteins, production of beta lactamases like ESBL or AmpC contributing significantly. Judicious use of antibiotics and surveillance to detect CRKP strains early will help in reducing the spread of such strains.
The present study was aimed to develop an efficient in vitro regeneration protocol for callus induction and shoot regeneration from Baliospermum montanum. The leaf explants were inoculated on MS medium fortified with different concentration and combination of auxins (2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid, 1-naphthalene acetic acid, indol-3-butyric acid and indol-3-acetic acid) and cytokinins (6-benzylaminopurine, 6-furfuryl aminopurine and zeatin) for callus induction, nodal and shoot tip explants for shoot regeneration. The maximum callus induction was observed on media supplemented with BAP (2.0 mg/L), 2, 4-D (2.0 mg/L) and KIN (5.0 mg/L) from leaf explant. However, combination of 2, 4-D (0.5 mg/L) + BAP (4.0 mg/L) and NAA (0.5 mg/L) + BAP (1.0 mg/L) recorded higher callus induction. Whereas, in the combination of cytokinins such as KIN (0.5 mg/L) + BAP (3.0 mg/L) and BAP (0.5 mg/L) + KIN (2.0 mg/L) showed greater callus induction compared to other concentrations. Shoot regeneration was higher from shoot tip and nodal explants on medium supplemented with BAP (1.0 & 2.0 mg/L) + GA3 (2 & 3 mg/L). Maximum root induction was noticed on half strength MS medium fortified with NAA (0.2 and 0.5 mg/L). The regenerated shoots with well-developed roots were successfully subjected to hardening process and were acclimatized.
Our results demonstrated that leaf explants were good source for callus induction and the nodal explants for shoot regeneration. Further studies have to be carried out to isolate the major bioactive compounds from B. montanum.
Sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis) occupies a prominent position in the citrus sector in the world. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of genotype × environment (G×E) interaction that influences oranges fruit quality. The experiments were conducted in three location namely: El Menzeh, SidiAllal Tazi, and Sept Garden. 20 orange variants from apomictic seedlings of three varieties of orange (Sangunilli, Grosse Sanguine, Salustiana) were evaluated for fruit quality. The results revealed that there were significant differences (P < 0.05) among locations. For the first variants group of Sanguinilli, no significant difference were found among the genotypes for the all characters studied at the three locations. While, there was significant difference among genotypes between the environment. Genotypes x environment interaction also did not showed significant effects for the variables except of average fruit weight. In Grosse Sanguine variants, no significant difference between genotypes for all studied traits. Also, interaction (GXS) is not significant. But, Sites reveal significant difference. For Salustiana variants, no significant difference between genotypes for all studied traits. These results have shown an environmental effect on the variability of fruit quality. The majority of quality characters are relatively stable in Tazi and Menzeh than in Sept Garden. The study of the genotypes selected based on the parameters studied indicates the existence of a great diversity of response to the three environments complicated by the interactions of the genotypes with the environment.
Wrightia tinctoria (Roxb.) was a endangered plant having medicinal importance belongs to the Apocynacea family. The aim was to investigate the preliminary phytochemical analysis, antibacterial activity, antioxidant of seed, leaf and callus extracts of Wrightia tinctoria. The study was done for fifteen days old germinated plant of Cotyledon leaf explants on the ½ MS medium BAP (1 mg/l) + NAA (0.5 mg/l) used for the initiation of callus for further preparations. Activity dividing cells was produced in 6th week, which was friable greenish and predominant callus. The bioactive compounds was used for antibacterial, antioxidant activities and the phytochemical analysis of seed, leaf and callus predicted the presence of phytochemical constituents such as carbohydrates, phenols, phytosterols, saponins, alkaloids, xanthoproteins, quinones, tannins, starch, coumarin, triterpenoids and flavonoids. The antibacterial activity of a crude aqueous extract of callus, leaf and seed tested against 15 different bacterial strains by agar well diffusion method. The Comparative study of antibacterial activity reveals that callus extract of Wrightia tinctoria illustrated a wide spectrum that inhibited the growth of microorganisms with a maximum inhibition zone of about 20 mm against Enterobacter aerogenes. The DPPH free radical scavenging activity of callus extract of Wrightia tinctoria was shown higher percentage. The different extracts of Wrightia tinctoria were significantly protected the DNA damage against the oxidation by Fenton’s reaction. From the above data resulted, the callus extract of Wrightia tinctoria was found to have potential in treating human ailments, and thus pave the way for the formulation of new potent drugs.
Single cell proteins (SCPs) are rich essential in nutritive amino acids, the building blocks of protein are highly essential for the maintenance of the living system. SCPs are used as animal feed and dietary rich food for humans. Many raw materials are used for the production of Single-Cell Proteins (SCP)The present work was carried out to extract a single cell protein from yeast using Vigna unguriculata (L.) Walp. and Cicer arietinum L. substrate. The maximum yield of crude protein was observed in 15 days of fermentation.
The recombinant vaccinal proteins can provide a solution for prevention of the contagious diseases, especially in deprived countries. While using eukaryotic platforms such as E. coli lack the post-translational modifications for expression of the proteins and using mammalian cells and plant cells encounter a labor-intensive and continuous process of cell culture and the final product requires special transportation logistics, the plant seeds can provide a good solution for expression of the vaccinal proteins as an oral vaccine. Seeds contain a low amount of water content and can show a considerable bioencapsulation to protect the recombinant products from environmental degradation. However, for the expression of a recombinant protein, there are steps and considerations that should be considered. These considerations include the choice of an appropriate seed to be used as an expression platform (bioreactor), the choice of the promoter, adjustment of the codon preference, targeting the protein for in the cell and finally purification of the vaccinal protein in case of need. This article aims to describe the details of the recombinant vaccine production in the seed platform with the focus on oral delivery of the vaccine at a glance.