Original Research Article

THE EFFECT OF PHOSPHATE AND ORGANIC ADDITIVES ON THE STABILITY OF FOOD WASTE IN THE FULL-SCALE COMPOSTING

AYOUB HAOUAS, CHERKAOUI EL MODAFAR, ALLAL DOUIRA, SAÂD IBNSOUDA-KORAICHI, ABDELKARIM FILALI-MALTOUF, ABDELMAJID MOUKHLI, SOUMIA AMIR

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Volume 21, Issue 39-40, Page 17-28

Food waste was composted with three additives consisting of phosphate sludge, green waste, and olive mill waste to produce a stable compost. To determine the stability for agricultural utilization, the compost maturity was evaluated using physic-chemical parameters. The temperature of treated composts remained high in the first month of composting. However, the pH was increased during composting to a slightly alkaline level around 8.0 instead of 9.31 in the control of food waste only. The integration of additives into the food waste composting has considerably reduced the electrical conductivity of the piles to optimal values less than 4 mS/cm. The C/N ratio decreased to less than 10 after 150 days, but the C/N ratio of the control (17.37) was two times higher than the enriched composts with additives composting indicating a good maturity of the composts enriched with additives. In addition, the additives significantly improved the stability of food waste during composting; the composts enriched with additives were thermostable more than 0.5 times than the control. The additive composed by a combination of phosphate sludge and olive oil mill waste showed greater effect on maturity and stability of the compost produced compared to other additives of only phosphate sludge and phosphate sludge + green waste.

Original Research Article

AGRICULTURAL TRADITIONAL PRACTICES AND RISKS OF USING INSECTICIDES DURING SEED STORAGE IN MOROCCO

AIMAD ALLALI, SANAE REZOUKI, HANANE LOUGRAIMZI, NAJAT TOUATI, NOUREDDINE ELOUTASSI, MOHAMED FADLI

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Volume 21, Issue 39-40, Page 29-37

The insecticide use by farmers raises the issue of the risks that these products pose to man and his environment, to clarify the status of these chemicals' use and to highlight the traditional agricultural practices of crop conservation. We conducted surveys in 2 Moroccan regions, Casablanca-Settet and Fez-Méknes, among the rural population. The investigation covered 800 people, 79% of them were men. The most representative age group was 40-60 years old (54%), farmers were the group most represented in the sample surveyed (78%) in which the illiteracy rate was higher (43%). Our results show that the choice of storage location and method plays an important role in seed conservation, 24% of the population uses underground tanks (matmouras) as a traditional practice for efficient storage without insecticides, for other methods, insecticides are mandatory to control phytophagous insects which present 73% of all pests. As for pesticide use, only (7%) of the respondents received simple knowledge about insecticides, so that most farmers (88%) buy these products from uncontrolled (weekly souk) or unauthorized sales points and that (99%) of farmers do not respect the prescribed dose during application, the number of repetitions and the time between two successive repetitions.  Most handlers (77%) do not take sanitary precautions during use and packaging is released directly into the surrounding environment in most cases (68%).

Original Research Article

THE POTENTIAL OF Asystasia gangetica (CHINESE VIOLET) EXTRACTS AS AN ANTI-AGING AGENT AND AS A WHITENING AGENT

MARJETTE YLREB U. BARBAZA, CHENG-YANG HSIEH, KATHLIA A. DE CASTRO- CRUZ, CHIA-JUNG LEE, PO-WEI TSAI, CHIEH-LUN HSIEH

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Volume 21, Issue 39-40, Page 49-54

Several advancements were achieved from natural products chemistry over the years and all over the world and although exploration of natural products was more focused on its application in the medical field, studies on its use in the cosmetic industry, primarily on anti-aging and whitening, have also been performed especially now that the cosmetics market is moving towards the green cosmetic trend. Inflammation plays a major role in intrinsic human skin aging while tyrosinase serves as a key player in the color development of the skin because of its role in melanin production. With this, the study aims to assess the potential of different extracts of Asystasia gangetica which is abundant in biologically active components such as phenolics, flavonoids, saponins, and tannins as a source of cosmetic products that are anti-aging and whitening in order to provide new information that will be valuable in green cosmetic research. To do this, different extracts of A. gangetica were utilized to treat RAW 264.7 cells to assess their anti-inflammatory activity and are reacted with tyrosinase solution and L-DOPA substrate to examine its anti-tyrosinase activity. The findings showed that all extracts except for aqueous exhibit anti-inflammatory property with methanol extract being the most favorable, while only three extracts exhibited inhibitory effect against tyrosinase, with ethyl acetate extract being the most promising with an  of 0.19 ± 0.013 mg/mL. In conclusion, A. gangetica has the potential to act as an anti-aging and a whitening agent and may be essential in further development of green cosmetics.

Original Research Article

EFFECT OF FE AND GA3 ON GROWTH AND OIL CHARACTERISTICS OF ROSEMARY PLANT (Rosmarinus officinalis L.)

MOHAMMED NAZAR HASAN, SAFAA M. SULTAN

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Volume 21, Issue 39-40, Page 55-63

This research was performed in Kirkuk at the lath building, which includes the effect of Fe and GA3 on the characteristics of vegetative growth and concentration of certain medically active substances for rosemary plant (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) two years old plant and planted into pots. In addition to the treatment of non-iron spray and symbol F0, the first factor Fe concentration used 50 ml or mg/L symbol F1, and spray with 100 mg/L and symbol F2. The second component used to spray Gibberellin 100 ml or mg/L and symbol G1 and spray 150 ml or mg/L and symbol G2, in addition to non-spraying procedure with GA3 and symbol G0. The experiment employed a total randomized block template of three replications. The findings that have arrived can be summarized as follows. The effect of Fe and GA3 significantly increased vegetative growth characteristics, and the overlap was significant where discriminate treatment (F2G2) the highest rate of plant height (62.12 cm), and the highest rate of the number of plant branches (17.8), and the highest percentage of carbohydrates (6.70), the highest percentage of dry matter for total vegetative (33.06 g) and the highest percentage of dry matter for total root (166.01) and the highest overall chlorophyll concentration (34.19 SPAD) relative to the lowest percentage of plant (40.68 cm) in contrast, and the number of plant branches (11.9) and percentage of carbohydrates (4.30) and value of dry matter for total vegetative (21.66 g) and the value of dry matter for total root (135.98 g) and the less total chlorophyll concentration (22.62 SPAD). Fe and GA3 caused appositive significant differences in oil characteristics and the overlap was significant the treatment (F2G2) gave the highest quantity of oil (0.605 mL/g dry material) and a highest specific gravity (0.95) compared with the lowest quantity of oil (0.270 mL/g dry material) and lowest specific gravity (0.82) in the control treatment, whereas there are no significant differences in a refractive index of oil.

Original Research Article

EVALUATION OF PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL TRAITS AS SCREENING TECHNIQUE FOR HEAT STRESS TOLERANCE IN INDIAN MUSTARD [Brassica juncea (L.) CZERN & COSS.] GENOTYPES

PRIYA CHUGH, PUSHP SHARMA

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Volume 21, Issue 39-40, Page 64-81

Indian mustard is a highly valuable crop is mostly targeted for commercial cultivation. Due to intensive cropping pattern, Brassica juncea is mostly encounter with heat stress at the reproductive stage. The experiment was conducted during rabi crop season (2017-18) at Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana to evaluate the physiological and biochemical responses during reproductive stage in the leaves of Indian mustard genotypes. The RWC decline by 23.0%, LWR by 12.0% and MS by 36.3% while incrementing in WSD by 16.8%, RSD by 15.4% and in MI by 18.1% under delayed sowing. The upregulation of antioxidative enzymes viz. catalase by 1.51, SOD by 1.48 and POD by 1.76 fold and non-enzymatic antioxidative metabolites i.e. tocopherol by 1.82 and ascorbic acid by 2.16 by in late sowing activates the defense mechanism under heat stress. Total siliquae/plant reduced by 43.5%, seed/siliqua by 16.2% and 1000 SW by 26.5% with delayed planting. These results suggested that the physiological and biochemical responses in plants plays a significant role to reveal the underlying mechanism during stress environment. Based on plant water status, yield attributed and CSRI value of biochemical traits, genotypes HLM-41-13-2, DAR-8, CSR-45 and CSR-1163 identified as promising genotypes.

Original Research Article

ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAE EXPLORATION AND IDENTIFICATION ON SUGARCANE PLANTATIONS IN HUMID TROPIC AREA OF INDONESIA

SOFYAN ABDULLAH, YUNUS MUSA, TUTIK KUSWINANTI, MUHAMMAD JAYADI, RISMA NESWATI

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Volume 21, Issue 39-40, Page 82-91

The presence of arbuscular mycorrhizae can vary in type and quantity which is determined by the environment.  This study aims to explore and identify vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) in sugarcane plantations in tropical area of Indonesia. The method used was a quantitative survey that described the VAM characteristics and its morphology in sugarcane plantation. The Soil sampling were located at 3 provinces in Indonesia, namely, Takalar (South Sulawesi), Bombana (Southeast Sulawesi), and Gorontalo. The isolation of mycorrhizal fungi was carried out by extracting spores using the pour-filter according to Pacioni method, followed by centrifugation based on Brundrett method. The results of the soil samples from 3 different sugarcane plantations in Sulawesi island found 3 types of VAM namely, Acaulospora sp., Glomus sp., and Gigaspora sp. The highest number of VAM spores belonging to Acaulospora sp genus with small round shape was found in Takalar (South Sulawesi), while the lowest number was found in the soil samples of Bombana (Southeast Sulawesi) and Gorontalo sugarcane plantations. The VAM spores number and types on sugarcane plantation were commonly found in soil with high fertility than in nutrient-poor soil.

Original Research Article

In vitro SHOOT MULTIPLICATION AFFECTED BY LIGHT AND CULTURE SYSYEM IN POTATO

MOHAMMED J. H. Al-SHAREEFI, MUSLIM ABD ALI ABDULHUSSEIN, JAMAL AHMED ABBASS

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Volume 21, Issue 39-40, Page 92-101

This study aimed  to investigate the effect of the light sources and culture system on in vitro growth and multiplying shoots of potato.  The plants were exposed to different spectral  light sources for 16 hd-1 photoperiod under the following three treatments: white light (Florescent) the control, red (R16) and  blue (B2) LEDs  and red (R18) and blue (B2) LEDs. Also, this study comprised three treatments of culture systems: temporary immersion system (TIS) which contains 500 ml of MS media in each container, we used 40 segments of two nodes with an immersion and frequency time of two minutes each two hours. Solid and liquid culture systems which contains 50 mL of MS media in each vessel, we used 4 segments of two nodes.  The results showed the excelled of the plants growing under (LED R16: B2 + TIS) showed the highest rate of shoots number, fresh weight and dry weight percentage. While, the treatment (LED R18: B2 + TIS) which achieved   the highest rate of  shoots length. The treatment (LED R18: B2 + solid culture) achieved   the highest rate of chlorophyll content.

Original Research Article

ANTIPROLIFERATIVE AND APOPTOTIC EFFECT OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF EDIBLE MUSHROOM Agaricus bisporus AGAINST HELA, MCF-7 AND MDA-MB-231 CELL LINES OF HUMAN CANCER AND CHEMOPROFILE BY GC-MS

SWAPAN KUMAR GHOSH, TAPOJYOTI SANYAL, TANMAY BERA

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Volume 21, Issue 39-40, Page 109-122

The edible and wild mushrooms are recognized as important source of anticancer agents. Our aims are to harness methanolic extracts of Agaricus bisporus (ABME) and to test for anticancer effects in HeLa, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines. To test anticancer effect of this extract, we adopted some methodology such as cell morphology study  by bright field microscope, nuclear morphology study by DAPI staining under inverted fluorescence microscopy, apoptosis assay by fluorescence technique, MTT assay, lactate dehydrogenase assays,  and expression of apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes by Western blotting. The results showed that under a phase contrast microscope, the cells from the three cancer cell lines exposed to 500–1000 μg/ml concentrations of ABME for 24 h, were round and shrunken. DAPI staining revealed that nuclei in the three treated cell lines were condensed, fragmented and deeply stained. MTT assay revealed that the growth of all three cell lines was inhibited at all tested concentrations of ABME; at 1000 µg/mL, the percentages of inhibition in HeLa, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines were > 80%. Under 500 µg/mL ABME exposure, LDH leakage in all three cell lines; increased expression of pro-apoptotic genes (Caspase 3, 9) and Bax; and decreased expression of BcL2 in MCF-7 cells validated the anticancer properties. The p53 gene was up-regulated by ABME. The percentage inhibition of migration of MCF-7 cells treated with ABME was 75.25±5.23. The total antioxidant content of ABME was 3.616718±0.24123 mg/ dry weight; the EC50 was 95.653±9.54067 µg/mL for DPPH, and the FRAP method indicated a free radical scavenging capacity of it. GC-MS analysis of the extract showed 102 compounds. In conclusion, A. bisporus thus contains anticancer compounds, and its consumption may prevent cervical and breast cancer.

Original Research Article

EFFECT OF SPRAYING ALGATON FERTILIZER ON THE GROWTH AND YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF SUNFLOWER CULTIVARS Helianthus annuus L. UNDER DIFFERENT TILLAGE SYSTEMS

MARWAN NOORI RAMADHAN, MUHAMED AUDA KALAF AL-ABODY, SADIQ JABAR MUHSIN

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Volume 21, Issue 39-40, Page 123-134

Field experiment was conducted during the spring season 2020 at Al-Huwair area, north of Basra Governorate, Iraq with the aim of knowing the effect of spraying three concentrations of Algaton fertilizer namely (0, 2, 4 and 6 ml l-1) and tillage system, on the growth and yield of three varieties of sunflower, namely (Euroflor, Shumos and Luleo).

The conventional tillage system recorded higher mean of plant height, stem diameter, leaf area, head diameter, number of seeds per head, weight of 1000 seeds, seed yield and oil percentage of 151.55 cm, 1.98 cm, 0.42 m2, 16.97 cm, 1120.67 seed head-1, 65.14 g, 3244.70 kg ha-1 and 32.85% respectively.

Luleo cultivar recorded the highest mean of plant height, stem diameter, leaf area, head diameter, yield components, seed yield and oil percentage.

The effect of Algaton fertilizer was significant, the 6 ml l-1 concentration level gave the highest mean of plant height, stem diameter, leaf area, head diameter, seed yield and oil content.

The interaction among cultivars and Algaton fertilizer was significant, as Euroflor cultivar at 6 ml l-1 concentration recording the highest plant height and seed yield, the Luleo cultivar at 6 ml l-1 concentration recorded the highest oil percentage.

Original Research Article

EFFECT OF CUTTING TYPE, IBA AND WOUNDING ON THE ROOTING OF ASSYRIAN PLUM Cordia myxa L.

AHMED ABD ALRAHEEM MOHAMMED AHMED, WISAM KHAZAAL KHALID

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Volume 21, Issue 39-40, Page 135-141

This study was carried out during the growing season of 2018 to investigate the possibility of propagating (Cordia myxa L.) by using two types of wood cutting (hardwood and semi-hardwood), the effect of wounding (with or without wounding) and three Conc. of IBA (0, 3000 and 8000 mg.kg-1), In (Randomized Complete Block Design) RCBD. The results indicated that using hardwood stem cuttings was better than semi-hardwood cuttings, Although there was no significant difference between both kinds in most studied characteristics, except the number of leaves (6.80, 2.71) and Length of new shoots (18.58, 7.39) cm respectively.

The differences between Wounding and non-wounding treatments didn't affect significantly in most studied characteristics except in rooting percentage which was 28.89% and 15.56% respectively. Also, using both Conc. of IBA at (3000 and 8000 mg.kg-1) didn't affect significantly in most of the studied characteristics except rooting percentage which gave (31.67 and 25.00%), as compared with control treatment (10%).

Original Research Article

A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK OF MANAGEMENT OF HIGH-DENSITY APPLE TREES IN HIMALAYAN REGIONS FOR HIGH QUALITY AND HIGH PRODUCTION: EVIDENCES FROM KASHMIR VALLEY

MOHD IQBAL RATHER, RAIS AHMAD

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Volume 21, Issue 39-40, Page 142-155

This paper studied about the general management of high density apple trees for higher production and greater quality of apple fruit in Himalayan regions with special reference to Kashmir valley. This paper focuses on the nature of soil and planting and sequencing of high density apple plants for efficient production. The paper used POSDCORB type technique for allocation of the high density trees. The higher density system is more expensive in the investment year, but total growing costs are less than the central leader system. The net results showed that there is no significant difference in the total establishment and growing costs and the internal rates of return are greater than many alternative long-term investment opportunities. The paper concludes that efficient management leads to greater production. It is not sufficient to have HD plants but management of HD plants is necessary for harvesting better results.

Original Research Article

POTENTIAL EFFECT OF ZINC OXIDE NANOPARTICLE AS A NATURAL ANTIBIOTIC DRUG AGAINST BACTERIAL SPECIES

S. PRABHU, A. BINU PARVATHY, R. ASHOK KUMAR, V. SANDHYA

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Volume 21, Issue 39-40, Page 156-168

Objectives: The current study emphasizes synthesis of Zinc oxide nanoparticles using the bud extract of Syzygium aromaticum due to its higher Phenolic content and to observe its antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus.

Methods: The presence of polyphenols in bud extracts of S. aromaticum were analysed qualitatively and quantitatively by standard method, then the formed ZnO nanoparticles from clove bud extract were characterized. Finally, antibacterial activity of ZnO nanoparticles from clove bud extract were determined and statistical analysis was done by ANOVA.

Results: The clove bud extracts of S. aromaticum showed the presence of polyphenols by ferric chloride test. The amount of polyphenols present in the bud extract was found to be 118 mg GAE/g of dry weight for aqueous extract of clove and 180 mg GAE/g of dry weight for 80% methanol extract of clove. The formation of ZnO nanoparticles was done by using 80% methanol extract of clove which has higher phenolic content, characterized by UV Vis spectrophotometer showed an absorption peak at 224 nm and FTIR analysis showed peak at 650.01 cm-1. Morphology of synthesized nanoparticle was confirmed by SEM analysis and XRD spectrum showed diffraction peaks around 36.273° and the size of the nanoparticle found to be 123.84 nm. Antibacterial activity of synthesized nanoparticle showed its effectiveness against bacterial species was in the decreasing order of S. aureus > B. cereus > B. subtilis > E. coli. The statistical analysis of agar diffusion method for each bacterial species showed that there is a significant difference between standard (Chloramphenicol and Ampicilin) and Zinc oxide nanopartciles.

Conclusion: The current study reveals that, ZnO nanoparticles synthesized from bud extract of Syzygium aromaticum effectively inhibits Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and could be used as an effective alternative to treat bacterial infections.

Original Research Article

OPTIMIZED REGENERATION OF Kolanchoe (Kalanchoe blossfeldiana R.) AND Agrobacterium tumefaciense-MEDIATED Gus GENE TRANSFORMATION

MARYAM MEHDIZADEH HAKKAK, NASRIN MOSHTAGHI, ABDOLREZA BAGHERI

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Volume 21, Issue 39-40, Page 1-16

The effects of plant growth regulators were investigated on Kalanchoe blossfeldiana regeneration and then gene transferring was optimized. Three types of explants: leaf surface, vein and petiole and different concentrations of Benzyl Adenine (BA) and Kinetin (Kin) alone or in combination with Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA) were used for regeneration. Results showed that the highest number of shoots (47.33) and leaves (330.33) were obtained on Murashige-Skoog (MS) medium + 1.5 mg/L BA and 0.7 mg/L NAA. Maximum length of shoots (1.7 cm) was obtained from petiole explants on MS medium + 1.5 mg/L BA and 0.7 mg/L NAA. In medium containing Kin, adventitious root regeneration obtained from leaf explants. The most root number (21.12) and root length (1.56 cm) produced in  MS+1 mg/L Indole Butyric Acid (IBA). For acclimation, the most length and leaf number increase percentage were obtained in peat-moss substrate. For optimization of β-glucuronidase-gene transferring, leaf sections and stems of in-vitro plantlets were used as explants for co-culturing in 10 and 30 min by Agrobacterium tumefaciense strain LBA4404 containing gus gene. The highest percentage of gene transferring and its expression (38.46%) was observed in leaf explants by 10 min co-culturing. So this protocol can be used for efficient gene transferring to this plant.

Short Research Article

ANTICORROSION EFFECT OF NATURAL MATERIAL ON MILD STEEL

E. KOWSALYA, S. SHARMILA, L. JEYANTHI REBECCA

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Volume 21, Issue 39-40, Page 102-108

Mild Steel(MS) was widely used in construction and  metal structures   industries but in chemical processing industries releasing more acidic fumes creating environment which will corrode the mild steel .there are so many synthetic metal coatings are available apart from in the great interest of green environment in all aspects the work was carried out to use Aloevera gel extract as a corrosion inhibitor the study was carried out by creating Acidic environment at different concentration and the measured metal piece of MS was immersed in a solution and the corrosion rate and effect of reduction in corrosion of MS level was analyzed by the addition of Aloevera Extract as 1ml (E1),5 ml(E2),10ml(E3) with the condition No extract(N) addition to the two Acidic environment. In 10M Hcl medium addition of 10ml Aloevera results maximum of 97% reduction level of metal dissociation.formulation of aloevera gel as a coating will  improve its applicability.

Review Article

REVIEW OF MANGROVE FOREST ECOSYSTEM ON THE HEALTH OF MALUKU ISLANDS

FRANSINA S. LATUMAHINA, ESTHER MASAUNA, HUSEIN MARASABESSY

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Volume 21, Issue 39-40, Page 38-48

A healthy forest condition will depend on biotic and abiotic factors in the forest do not become a limiting factor in achieving the goals of current and future sustainable forest management. Healthy forest conditions include the presence of trees that thrive, are productive, fast accumulation of biomass and nutrient cycles, no significant damage occurs by plant-disturbing organisms, and the presence of a typical ecosystem. The management of protected forest health aims to integrate knowledge about ecosystems, population dynamics and genetics of plant-disturbing organisms with economic considerations to keep the risk of damage below the threshold of loss. In the last decade, mangrove forests on Seram Island, Saparua Island and the Islands of Southeast Maluku suffered damage due to anthropogenic pressure including illegal logging, livestock grazing, forest fires, erosion, flooding resulting in mangrove forests on the three islands unable to function as a regulator of water systems, and protection of the system life buffer. The impact of subsequent floods, erosion, decreased water flow, drought to decrease soil fertility on the three islands. This condition needs serious attention because the health condition of the forest will affect the lives of living creatures living in and around protected forests. Therefore, the specific goal to be achieved is to know the health status of mangrove forests on the three small islands in Maluku so that policy recommendation will give to parties related to managing mangrove forest areas in Maluku, especially in the face of climate change. By knowing the health status of mangrove forests, the relevant stakeholders will immediately set a strategic plan for managing mangrove forests on small islands in the context of disaster risk management to create communities around forests that are resilient to climate change and realize sustainable management of mangrove forests on small islands. In the last decade, most of the mangrove forests in Maluku experienced erosion, flooding during the rainy season and decreased water flow during the dry season, so the status, and health condition of mangrove forests should be known as an early warning for comprehensive conservation of mangrove forests.