Traditional medicinal plants cure inflammation throughout the world, particularly in impoverished nations with little resources. The present study aimed to assess the anti-arthritic efficacy of hydroethanolic extracts of Peganum hermala, Operculina turpathum, and Semicarpus anacardium. Initially, hydro-ethanolic (30/70) extracts were employed for phytochemical analysis. Fourier transform infrared studies were carried out at 4000- 400cm-1. The plant extracts were evaluated in vitro against diclofenac sodium as a control utilizing membrane stabilization and protein denaturation techniques. P.harmala (500µg/ml) showed the highest (97%) percentage inhibition, followed by S. anacardium (75%) and O.terpathum (74%) with same dose, as per results of invitro anti-arthritic activity in the protein denaturation method. Defense of Human Red Blood Cells (HRBC) membrane stabilization was highest in O.terpethum (44%):then P.hermala (41%):and S.anacardium (40%):while it is 35% in standard drug. It is determined that hydroalcoholic extracts of plants are more potent than diclofenac in inhibiting protein denaturation and defending Human Red Blood Cell membrane stability. The above findings validated traditional applications of these plants as anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic drug. However, more pharmacological studies might be conducted to validate their efficacy and mechanism of action.
The present histopathological study states the ameliorative potential of mulberry fruit extract of Morus alba studied against the histopathological degeneration induced by lead (Pb) toxicity in Swiss male albino mice. Adult male animals were distributed into three groups i.e. (i) Control (no treatment), (ii) Lead acetate group (50 ppm Pb) lead acetate were given in drinking water 15 days + Pb acetate free water 5 days). (iii) Pb+M (lead +Morus alba) group (50ppm Pb acetate as in Pb group + Mulberry pulp extract 0.2 ml from 16 to 20 days). Results show that Pb exposure resulted in a significant decline in liver and animal body weights. Lead exposure has been found to induce specific histopathological alteration in the liver such as the signs of hepatocytic necrosis were marked by the appearance of fibrosis predominantly around the periportal areas. The central lobular hepatocytes demonstrate extension and inclusion of the adjacent membrane. To form cytoplasm streaks and networking surrounding empty irregular spaces representing the regular liver sinusoids. Additionally, profuse microphage infestations were seen that might represent the elimination of debris and the beginning of repair action. These findings are supported by significant alterations in micrometric parameters. The Morus alba treatment in lead intoxicated mice has been found to improve the rehabilitative activities in hepato-histological architectural derangements. Hence it is concluded that subchronic lead exposure in drinking water may lead to various histopathological alterations in the liver whereas post-treatment of mulberry fruit extract has the capacity of rapid rehabilitation of the liver.
The present study focused on the composting of green waste from quack grass and sludge from the washing of natural phosphates and their agronomic valorization. The physic-chemical parameters of waste and final product including temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, total organic carbon, nitrogen, available phosphorus and ash levels, as well as the agronomic valorization was evaluated. The studied wastes reached maturity and stability after 3 months of composting with a C/N and NH4+/NO3- ratios of 12.39 and 0.11 respectively. Three doses of 5%, 10% and 20% of the compost were incorporated into the greenhouse tomato-growing medium. After 9 weeks of cultivation, the compost effectively improved the growth of Lycopersicon esculentum L. The 5% dose significantly increased growth parameters of tomato plants followed by doses 10 and then 20 % compared to the control. Indeed, the 5% dose increased the shoot height, the number of leaves, the leaf area, shoot and roots dry weight by 66, 55, 333 and 100% respectively compared to the control plants. Tomato plants amended with compost maintained higher relative water content (86%) than control plants (79%). While photosynthesis parameters exceeded 0.7 in the amended plants as opposed to the control plants, which did not exceed 0.64.
Drought is one of the environmental constraints affecting crop productivity and food security in the world, especially in arid and semi-arid areas. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) living in symbiosis with plant roots are registered candidates in the regulation of phosphorus (P) uptake by plants and promote their growth under severe drought conditions. This study was conducted to examine the effect of phosphorus (P, 50 mg kg-1) supplementation and the inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus mosseae, G. monosporus, G. versiforme) on growth and tolerance of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) under water-limited conditions. The obtained results revealed that drought negatively affects mycorrhization parameters. AMF inoculation and P supplementation significantly improved growth parameters under well-watered conditions (75% of field capacity: FC) and under severe water stress (30% FC). In addition, mineral nutrients such as P, potassium (K), sodium (Na), magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) were improved under both water regimes imposed on the soil in plants treated with P or AMF species. Phosphorus feeding and AMF inoculation also mitigated the drought-induced decline by improving leaf water potential and relative water content. G. mosseae differs from other fungal species in its ability to help the barley plants counteract the negative effects of drought. Indeed, barley plants not inoculated (Controls), not inoculated but fertilized with P and inoculated with G. versiforme have high amounts of proline. In this respect, we can conclude that optimization P fertilization and inoculation by AMF could be a biological strategy to satisfy and ensure water and mineral element requirements, as well as to protect barley plants against drought.
The yield component and some morphological characters were studied to determine genetic diversity, correlation of different characters towards yield, and path coefficient. The present study was conducted involving 13 Brassica juncea (L.) Czern., lines/genotypes at the Oilseed Research Station, Ayub Agriculture Research Institute (AARI), Faisalabad, Pakistan. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replications from November 2019 to March 2020. Analysis of variance indicated that the genotypes were found significantly different for all the characters considered. The correlation coefficient depicted that plant height (0.9104), and thousand seed weight (0.948) had a highly significant positive genotypic correlation with seed yield. At the same time, days to maturity (-0.849) and linolenic acid (-0.818) showed a strong negative genotypic correlation with seed yield per plant. A highly positive genotypic correlation of thousand seed weight with oil content (0.9067) was observed. The results of genotypic path coefficient analysis uncovered that number of branches (0.859), silique length (0.804), and seeds per silique (0.573) had a positive direct impact on seed yield per plant. Thus, these traits could be exploited to enhance the yield potential of mustard (B. juncea) for future hybridization programs, which could help rapeseed/mustard breeders upgrade their breeding activities.
In a postharvest laboratory experiment, to measure the effectiveness of some essential oils (EOs) of Peppermint, Cumin, Thyme, and Cinnamon at the concentrations of 0, 150 and 200 µlL-1 for each and two mixtures, one composed of Peppermint oil (150 µlL-1) and Cumin oil (150 µlL-1), and the other composed of Thyme oil (150 µlL-1) and Cinnamon oil (150 µlL-1), to extend the vase life of Lilium orientalis L. cv. Santander cut spikes. This experiment was done in two consecutive years, 2014 and 2015, between 23rd November and 15th December and was repeated in 2018 for the anatomical studies. It was found that, all the used EOs at either concentration, as well as mixtures had significant positive effects on enhancing most of the features of spike quality, maintaining the photosynthetic pigment content in the leaves of cut spikes, increasing the total carbohydrate content of the spikes, suppressing the growth of microorganisms in the vase solution and enhancing the anatomical structure of the stalk end of cut spikes. Concerning most of these advantages, the mixture of Peppermint oil and Cumin oil had superiority over the mixture of Thyme oil and Cinnamon oil. Accordingly, it can be said that the harmful chemical preservatives used abundantly in floral preservative solutions can be replaced by safe natural materials such as EOs.
The study conducted to check the impact of changing climate on different date of sowing, disease resistance and yield stability in 2020-2021 at Faisalabad. Three different date of sowing 15th of October 25th of October and 10th of November were selected for screening of one hundred and sixty four, chickpea genotypes (Desi and Kabuli advance lines and commercial varieties as check). The highest grain yield per plot produced by Desi advance line, D-15027 and in Kabuli, advance line K-01525. The comparison of sowing dates manifested that at 25th October the plant health remained good and was less effected with wilt and produced enhanced grain yield. The germplasm of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) were screened for the source of resistance against chickpea blight (Ascochyta rabiei) and wilt (Fusariun oxysporum f.sp.Ciceri). Out of 164 genotypes/varieties, six genotypes/varieties were found resistant, 66 were found moderately resistant and the remaining showed susceptible to highly susceptible type of reactions. Whereas in case of wilt, two lines (D-15027&K-01525) were showed moderately resistant behavior to disease. The resistant and moderately resistant sources in chickpea blight and wilt can further be exploited in breeding program for the development of disease resistant commercial cultivars.
The structure of the root system determines not only the drought resistance and efficiency of the mineral nutrition of plants, but also their adaptability to other stresses and the stability of the crop. In the vegetation experiment, we analyzed the effect of water deficit and studied the size of the root system and a a few traits characterizing the morphotype and productivity of 32 varieties of rice of Russian breeding. The plants were grown in vessels (7 kg) with a soil-sand mixture. The experiment was carried out in 3 replications. 10 plants were planted in each vessel. Rice cultivars were marked using 100 SSR markers both linked to the trait and neutral distributed over the rice genome. The longest root system in stress condition was typical for varieties: D-14-3Upla/Liman, Ryzhik, G-172-0-0Baldo/Rapan, Flagman, VNIIR1529/Druzniy, Ivushka, Mavr, Privolniy-4, Sprint, Zhemchug, Kurchanka / A 12 6210. They formed roots longer than 21 cm and these samples can be used as sources of trait. The polymorphism of four chromosomal regions made it possible to reliably divide varieties into groups with a contrasting value of root length and weight; they are located in the regions of markers: RM405, RM53, RM5707, RM286. A decrease in the significance level to 0.07 makes it possible to identify another locus with a possible effect on the trait near marker RM162. For root mass at the level of significance adopted in biological studies (0.05), not a single locus had a significant effect. With a decrease in the significance level to 0.096, three loci were identified with a possible effect on the trait in the region of the location of markers RM104, RM242, RM 289. The chromosomal regions that determine the size of the root system in Russian rice varieties, according to the results of our research, are located at 1, 2, 5, 6, 9 and 11 chromosomes.
The effect of chitosan nanoparticles (Chs NPs; 50 and 200 mg/l) either individually or coated with coumarin (40 mg/l) and L-phenylalanine (40 mg/l) were tested for callus growth, silymarin, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in Silybum marianum callus. XRD pattern and particle distribution curves of the NPs treatments were assigned. Root explants of in vitro germinated seedlings gave the highest callus formation rate and biomass of healthy friable callus on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l of both 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid and 6-benzyladenine. Chs NPs (50 mg/l) coated with coumarin (40 mg/l) recorded the maximum value of callus fresh weight (67.85 g), compared to the control and this treatment showed low lipid peroxidation product. However, the lowest malondialdehyde content was recorded when callus was treated with 50 mg/l Chs NPs coated with L-phenylalanine, which showed the maximum radical scavenging activity. Peroxidase activity of callus was superior by the treatment of 200 mg/l Chs NPs coated with coumarin. Overall, NPs treatments were superior in the production of silymarin isomers and phenolic compounds, except for isosilybin B, catechol and cinnamic acid, in comparison to the control. In addition, NPs triggered the accumulation of some silymarin isomers (taxifolin and silydianin) and some phenolics (P-OH-benzoic acid and protocatechuic acid), which were not detected in the control callus. These results confirm the potential of using NPs as elicitors for enhancing the in vitro production of bioactive compounds.
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NP) are used worldwide for various applications such as antibacterial agents, photo-catalyst, drug delivery system, sunscreens and electronics. In the present investigation, the effect of TiO2 NP in promoting the growth of the Brassica juncea L. under cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) stress was analyzed. The 28-day-old mustard seedlings were subjected to two sets of treatments. In the first set, seedlings were exposed separately to 6 mM Cd(II), 500 µM As(III) and TiO2 NP (500 mgl-1 TiO2) for 96 h. In the second set, seedlings were exposed, in combination of Cd (II)+TiO2 NP (6 mM+500 mgl-1), and As(III)+TiO2 NP (500 µM+500 mgl-1) for 96 h. After that chlorophyll content, malondialdehyde content and antioxidant enzymes activity were analyzed. Seedlings under heavy metal (HM) stress showed stunted growth, increased malondialdehyde (MDA) content and antioxidant enzyme activity. The application of TiO2 NP along with Cd and As ameliorated the deleterious impact of heavy metals by promoting growth of mustard seedlings as compared to individual Cd- and As-alone treatment. Overall, this study concluded that TiO2 NP supplemented with heavy metal might be a promising approach in mitigating the adverse effects of heavy metal stress on mustard growth and development.
Wastewater originates from commercial, industrial and domestic sources that represent the largest volume. The quality of wastewater is linked to human behaviors and habits which represent a high risk to our planet so it must be treated to dispose it safely. The main objective of this study is to treat the domestic wastewater using Duckweed pond (DW) for reuse again. All experiments were conducted outdoors at the faculty of PSAS, Beni-Suef University. Duckweed pond was fabricated from glass material with 200Liter effective volume and continuously fed with domestic wastewater at different flow rates 15 and 10 days. Total 32 samples (16 for influent and 16 for effluent) in each season were collected and analyzed to evaluate the efficiency removal across the experimental system. The obtained results show that the treatment efficiency of DW at summer season was significantly higher than that of winter season for TDS, EC, TS and NH3 at p˂ 0.05. The system achieved 28, 28, 57, 57, 40.8, 83.8, 46.4, 91.4 and 79% removal efficiencies for TDS, EC, COD, BOD, TOC, TSS, TS, NH3 and TP respectively. Nitrate and nitrite values increased at the effluent in comparison to the influent but nitrate value decreased in the effluent at 10 days HRT by 84% during winter season. Duckweed plant successfully can be used for removing wastewater pollutants and improve the wastewater quality.
Introduction:Sorghum propinquum has been used for a variety of ethnomedicinal purposes, including blood stimulation and purification, as well as body defense.
Aim: The study aims to determine the hematological activity of Sorghum propinquum leaf base extracts.
Methods: The immunological effect of the leaf base extract was evaluated using tests on hematological indices.
Results: The packed cell volume, haemoglobin, red blood cell count, total leucocyte count, monocyte, basophil, eosinophil, bleeding time, and clotting time did not change significantly. The 100 mg/kg dose resulted in a large rise in neutrophils and a considerable decrease in lymphocytes. Platelet count was significantly increased at the dose of 300 mg/kg. Conclusion: The findings did not support the ethnomedicinal usage of the plant leaf base for blood production stimulation. It however showed improvement of non-specific immune responses involving inflammation.
Wild relatives and landraces are still considered valuable sources to improve beneficial traits for crops breeding purposes. In the present study, the variation of glutenin proteins was assessed for 120 accessions of Triticum, Aegilops genus, landraces and cultivated bread wheat and durum wheat varieties using Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoretic (SDS-PAGE) method. High and Low molecular weight glutenin subunits displayed a far greater variation in the accessions, as 38 and 135 alleles were identified respectively. The wide range of glutenin subunits variation has the potential to enhance the genetic variability for improving the quality of wheat. AMOVA showed that the molecular variance among populations (34%) was lower than within populations (66%). According to Nei genetic distance, cluster tree and Jaccard’s coefficient analysis, the bread and durum wheat varieties groups were the most distant from the other groups of wild relatives and landraces with similarity values ranging from 0.745 to 0.89. All the groups performed high polymorphic patterns and relatively low heterozygosity levels due to the dominance of specific bands. The highest diversity levels were in landraces (78) and Aegilops genus (68). On the other hand, the lowest levels of diversity were found in durum and bread wheat varieties groups (22 and 29 respectively) confirming the reduced genetic diversity due to the selection pressure of breeding programs. These results provide the possibility for further research aiming to investigate the effects on quality traits of the described variation, including the specific effects of rare and novel alleles, and their usefulness for cultivars improvement.
This research aims to investigate the influences of various levels of Picloram on embryogenic calli induction and proliferation from shoot tip explants of date palm. In callus induction stage, the concentrations of Picloram tested were 0.0, 10.0, 20.0, 30.0, 40.0 and 50.0 mg/l. Observations were based on the percentage of explants forming callus and fresh weight of callus. The study reveals that Picloram was capable of increasing the proportion of explants that formed calli, since Picloram at 50 mg/l in combination with 3.0 mg/l of 2ip gave the highest percentage of induction calli on explants (89.76%) and the fresh weight of callus was 5.33 g/jar. In addition, in the induction stage of somatic embryos, the concentrations of Picloram tested were 0.0, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/l. Adding 5.0 mg/l of Picloram with a combination of BA and TDZ at 1.0 mg/l was also able to accelerate the callus proliferation to form embryos recording the best somatic embryos number (30.21 embryo/jar). The various PEG concentrations had such a significant influence on the maturation of somatic embryos. PEG at a dosage of 20 mg/l seemed to have the greatest results, yielding 20.0 leaf/jar.
In this study, we used PCR and ELISA techniques to identify the specific Cry1Ac gene and proteins in MNH992 and VH289 transgenic cotton plants. MNH992 was extracted at a concentration of 21.9ug/g and VH289 at a concentration of 17.37ug/g from seed protein. PCR analysis confirmed that the gene specific CRY1Ac F/R primer produced amplicons with sizes of 550bp for the Bt gene, 600bp for the nptII gene, and 200bp for the 35s promoter gene. The ELISA method was used to validate the developed assay because it required less equipment and took less time.
In this study the sorption properties of a new multifunctional hemosorbent (G) based on natural silk fibroin were evaluated.The properties of the hemosorbent was studied on experimental models in three media: adsorption of water vapor, benzene vapor, and vitamin B12. From the isotherms of water vapor adsorption by silk fiber and hemosorbent, it was found that after hydrolysis of silk fiber, its water vapor absorption properties were reduced by two times. In the hydrolysis of alkaline fibers, fibroin is cleared of sericin and related substances, and its hydrophilicity decreasesd up to 2 times. From isotherms of benzene vapor adsorption by silk fiber and hemosorbent, silk fiber practically did not adsorb benzene, and hemosorbent adsorbed 64 times more benzene molecules. It was observed that the adsorption of vitamin B12 showed that the amount of unsorbed vitamin decreased with increased adsorption time. Moreover, with an increase in time, the adsorption process slows down significantly. The optimal time for immobilization of a fibrous polyfunctional hemosorbent based on hydrolyzed fibroin, placed in a column with vitamin B12, was 10 minutes (95%). In conclusion, this study showed that after hydrolysis of silk fiber, its water vapor absorption properties are reduced by two fold. The optimal time for immobilizing a fibrous polyfunctional hemosorbent based on hydrolyzed fibroin, is 10 minutes.
Twelve yellow maize inbred lines were crossed with two testers in line × tester mating design to produce 24 hybrids at Sakha Agricultural Research Station in the 2019 growing season. These 24 F1 hybrids along with two commercial check hybrids were evaluated in the 2020 season at three research stations (Sakha, Gmmeiza and Mallawy). The mean squares due to locations, crosses, and their interaction was highly significant for studied traits. Also, the mean squares due to lines, testers, and line x tester interaction were significant or highly significant for most traits. The data of days to 50% silking, plant height, ear height, and grain yield were recorded. The four inbred lines L-5, L-6, L-8, L-12, and tester Gz-666 were the best combiners for earliness. Whereas, inbred lines L-3, L-4, L-9, and tester Gz-658 were the best general combiners ability for grain yield. The best hybrids for specific combining ability were L-5×Gz-666 and L-11xGz-658 for grain yield. Additive and non-additive gene effects have a greater role in the inheritance of days to 50% silking, plant height, and ear height but the major role attends to additive gene effect. Meanwhile, non-additive gene effects have a major role in the inheritance of grain yield. The cross L-9 x Gz-658 is the best cross for grain yield and significantly out yielded the commercial checks and recommended further evaluation on large scale.
Environment is the fundamental factor for deciding the conveyance and plenitude of locust species globally. The various body’s parameters of males and females like distance between two eyes, length of head, pronotum, tegmina, wings, femur, tibia, total body length, total body length with tegmina and impact of climate on abrupt swarming of Schistocerca gregaria was examined during the present study. Locusts swarms landed on vast fields of cotton, wheat, maize, sugarcane and other standing crops in fertile parts of southern Punjab. It is estimated that million acres fertile land was badly affected by this sudden eruption, although earlier plagues persist for shorter time periods but recent plague was largest one started from March, 2019 up to December, 2019. The huge quantities of swarms were observed in the months of September and October and small swarms were recorded in March and April which coincides with environmental factors like temperature, humidity and rainfall. Control measures has been taken against Desert locust over 349440 hectors and aerial spray with Malathion 95% ULV on 300 hectors while ground operation was carried out on 92535 hectors. The present study was an important contribution on locust swarming and their action in southern Punjab.
Purpose: Diarrhea is a health problem in developing countries, including Indonesia. The Ogan ethnic community in South Sumatra, Indonesia, uses andong stem (Cordyline fruticosa) to treat diarrhea. The aims of this study included the phytochemical analysis of an ethanol extract of C. fruticosa and to perform determine its in-vivo antidiarrheal effect on white male Wistar-strain rats infected with Salmonella typhi.
Methods: Phytochemical analysis was carried out qualitatively and quantitatively. The rats were divided into six groups: normal, negative control, positive control, and three groups treated with C. fruticosa stem ethanol extract (CFEE) in doses of 150, 300 and 600 mg/kg BW (dose I, II, III respectively).
Results: The phytochemical analysis showed the presence of steroids, terpenoids, flavonoids, phenols, tannins, alkaloids, saponins, total phenolic (15.0653 mg GAE/g), and total flavonoid (0.8545 mg QE/g). The extract at dose III decreased the amount of S. typhi bacterial cells in the feces (ABCF), and the percentage of change in body weight of the rats (% CBWR) was insignificant compared to the positive control (P > 0.05). Dose II decreased ABCF on day 12 was insignificant compared to the dose III. The consistency of the feces of the rats in the positive control, dose III, and dose II groups were similar. A histopathological analysis showed that dose III and dose II caused small changes in the small intestine and liver.
Conclusions: CFEE is a potential antidiarrheal agent at doses 300 and 600 mg/kg BW respectively, which resulted in small changes in the small intestine and liver.
The ethnobotanical study carried out in the region of Oum Rbiâ (Morocco) made it possible to identify, highlight and collect information on the medicinal plants used in the region. Based on results obtained women and men are concerned with traditional medicine, with a slight predominance of women, 55% against 45%. The use of medicinal plants in the region of Oum Rbiâ is greater in the age group] 40-50] with 32%. Surveys of the region's population have thus made it possible to inventory 145 medicinal species used against the digestive affections. The species in question were divided into 64 plant families; Lamiaceae, Apiaceae, Asteraceae, and Fabaceae being those which dominate with a high specific size. The results obtained showed that gastric and intestinal diseases represent the most treated diseases. In addition, leaves are the most widely used part of the plant. Infusion and decoction are the most common methods used to prepare traditional remedies.
The results obtained constitute a very valuable source of information for the study area and the national medicinal flora.
This study was conducted to test the effect of the Cuprol compound (plant growth activator) on the lung of land snail, Massylaea vermiculata, and test its efficiency under field conditions. Serial concentrations of Cuprol compound were tested for three, and seven days using the thin layer film method. LC50 and LT50 of the examined compound were estimated. Moreover, the effect of ½ LC50 was studied on the LPO enzyme, and lung tissues were inspected after one week of treatment. The field performance of the Cuprol compound was evaluated as a spray, compared with methomyl on land snails in the field for three weeks on citrus nursery trees at the Ministry of agriculture nurseries, El-Dokki, Giza Governorate, Egypt. The laboratory results indicated that the most effective concentration was 1% which gave 70 and 100% mortality after three and seven days of treatment, respectively. The LC50 of Cuprol was 0.26% and LT50 was 1.6 days. Based on the LPO enzyme, the compound caused a significant increase in the enzyme level of treated snails compared with the control. Concerning the histopathological effect, the compound induced thickening and hyalinization of the septa between the atrophied alveoli and vacuolization in the musculature in the lung tissue of treated snails compared with the lung of the untreated snail. Regarding the field performance of Cuprol application, it achieved a 65 and 87.4% reduction in the snail numbers during November 2020 and April 2021, respectively, compared with 72% for the methomyl compound during the two period’s application.
Finally, Cuprol compound caused severe damage in the lung tissues and prevents the snail to respire by its effect on the oxidative enzyme. Therefore, it can be used as a safe molluscicide against land snails under field conditions.
Introduction: The radiographic features that help the radiologist to make the diagnosis of a bone tumour or tumour-like lesion or narrow the diagnostic possibilities, include internal characteristics of the lesions, patterns of bone destruction, lesion margins, location, site and position of the lesion in the skeletal system and in the individual bone and single or multiple lesion nature. These radiographic features with clinical information help to define whether the lesion is neoplastic or non-neoplastic, primary or metastatic.
Background: A systematic approach was useful for recognizing tumors of the spine with characteristic features such as Bone Island, osteoid osteoma, osteochondroma, chondrosarcoma, vertebral angioma, and aneurysmal bone cyst. In the remaining cases, the differential diagnosis included other primary spinal tumours, vertebral metastases and major non-tumoral lesions simulating a vertebral tumour, Paget disease, spondylitis, echinococcal infection and aseptic osteitis. In many cases, vertebral biopsy was warranted to guide treatment.
Objective: To correlate Magnetic resonance imaging findings with Radiograph findings and histopathological findings.
Result: Out of 44 cases of primary bone tumours, Giant cell tumour was most common pathology, observed in 9 cases followed by osteochondroma observed in 5 cases and by osteoid osteoma.
Conclusion: Lesions were more common in males than in females.
The antimicrobial effect of extracts of the following combinations – African geranium (Pelargonium sidoides DC.) & black elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.), St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.) & black elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) and African geranium (Pelargonium sidoides DC.) & St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.) in colloidal nanosilver (AgNPs) at a concentration of 30 ppm and in water was examined against Esherichia coli ATCC, Salmonella enterica ATCC, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC, Clostridium perfringens ATCC, Candida albicans ATCC and two clinical isolates (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus pyogenes). The classical agar-gel diffusion method, determination of Minimum inhibitory concentrations and suspension tests for determination the time of antimicrobial action of the herbal extracts in AgNPs were used.
Significant antimicrobial effect of aqueous extracts of each of the three tested herbs was found. The addition of AgNPs to each of the extracts resulted in enhanced antimicrobial activity. The combination of the three herbal extracts was synergistic in terms of the antimicrobial effect that increases. Their bactericidal effect was faster in the presence of AgNPs than in the absence of silver. When in a lower density suspension, the tested microorganisms showed a higher sensitivity to the tested herbal extracts. The Gram-negative bacteria tested died in a much shorter time than the Gram-positive ones. In the case of aqueous extracts without silver, the reduction of the tested microorganisms from all groups occurred more slowly than when the herbal combination contained AgNPs. Higher sensitivity to all studied herbs, as well as to the combination between them, showed the studied Gram-negative bacteria compared to Gram-positive microorganisms. The highest sensitivity by this method was found in E. coli and P. aeruginosa, as well as the strict anaerobe Clostridium perfringens. The oval fungus C. albicans also showed sensitivity to all studied herbs.
A trial was consummated at Postharvest Lab. of Ornamental plants and Landscape Gardening Research . Department, Horticulture Research Institute, ARC, Giza, Egypt during 2018 and 2019 seasons to study effect of spraying Chrysanthemum morifolium var. ' Crystal sunny 'flowering pot plants to runoff a single time different solutions containing distilled water, Benzyladenine (BA) at 50 , 100 ppm, Thidiazuron (TDZ) at 50, 100 ppm, BA at 50 ppm + Nano-silver (N.S) at 0.5 mg/l, BA at 100ppm + N.S at 0.5 mg/l, TDZ at 50 ppm + N.S at 0.5 mg/l and TDZ 100 ppm + N.S at 0.5 mg/l. Pot plants were stored under two temperatures, room temperature at (20±1 °C) and cold storage at (10°C) for one week.
The effect of the interaction between chemical treatments and storage temperatures on quality was also investigated. Results showed that all treatments significantly stimulated most of the studied characters compared to the control plants. Chrysanthemum pot plants treated with BA at 50ppm + N.S at 0.5 mg/l/l recorded the highest values of opening flowers and longevity and the least values of leaves abscission percentage, while treated pot plants with TDZ at 50 ppm gave the least values of opening flowers and longevity. The results of interaction between chemical treatments and storage temperatures showed that spraying chrysanthemum pot plants with BA at 50 ppm + N.S at 0.5 mg/l/and storing them for one week under room condition 20±1 °C gave the significantly highest records of opening flowers, longevity. The same treatment gave the lowest leaves abscission %, and reduced the depletion of total carbohydrates (%).
Nitrogen (N), plant density and varieties are three influential factors that affect wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) on yield and quality, but little is known regarding the effects of interactions between these three factors on the amount of nitrogen uptake and protein content in grains, at the same time trying to minimize production costs. Two field experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of three nitrogen fertilizer levels (60, 80 and 100 kg /fed) and three seeding rates (40, 60 and 80 kg/fed) one feddan=4200m2 on grain yield and quality of three wheat varieties (Giza-171, Gemmiza-12 and Shandawil-1) in Egypt during 2018/2019 and 2019 / 2020 seasons. The experimental design was a split- split plot in randomized complete block arrangement with three replications. Nitrogen levels, seeding rates and varieties were allocated to the main, sub plots and sub-sub plots, respectively. Results showed that significant differences among nitrogen fertilizer levels on grain yield, harvest index in both seasons, grains protein content and protein yield in first season, but this effect was not true on nitrogen uptake. The maximum grain yield, protein content and protein yield were achieved in plots tested with 100 kg N/fed, but the highest value of harvest index was at 80 kg N/fed. The effect of seeding rates on grain yield in the first season, harvest index in both seasons, nitrogen uptake, grains protein content and protein yield were significant where the highest values were recorded at 80, 60, 80, 80 and 60 kg grains/fed, respectively.. The highest values for each of grain yield and harvest index were recorded with sowing Giza-171, but Shandwil-1 surpassed the other two varieties among nitrogen uptake, grains protein content and protein yield. It is evident from the present results that the best treatment for each of grain yield and harvest index was under Giza-171 + 80 kg grains/fed +100 kg N/fed. but this treatment was under Shandawil-1 + 80 kg grains/fed + 80 kg N/fed for nitrogen uptake and protein yield.
The aim of present study was to evaluate the current status of plant diversity in different subtropical ecozones of Pakistan. There was mainly twelve ecozones (Kanhatti garden, Daip shareef, Kaghan, Balakot, Khewra, Nathiagali, Wild life Murree, Air base sakesar, Islamabad, Sheringal, Upper dir and Abbottabad) that belonging to three provinces of Pakistan. These ecozones were selected on various geophysical attributes, vegetation type and geographical location. The total numbers of species were calculated in aforementioned areas with the help of quadrat method. The data for density frequency, cover and importance value were recorded by using the CCA (Canonical Correspondence Analysis). The results showed the significant variation at various sites. Cynodondactylon was abundant present almost all the sites due toits superior tolerance. While, Erioscirpus comosus was frequently present at mountainous areas because of high moisture content in the soil and environment. It was concluded that high altitude areas had more organic matters and moisture contents in the soil as compared withlow altitude. While, mountainous (High altitude) areas such as Abbottabad, Upper Dir, Murree, Islamabad and Sakesar sites cover the more species diversity. Moreover, Kanhatti garden also had more organic contents that supports the more diversity.
The chemical properties of pomegranate peel, from the labeled IGP Moroccan cultivar "Sefri d'Ouled Abdellah”, were evaluated. The pH, titratable acidity, soluble solids, powder color properties, ash content and dietary fibers were determined. Bioactive contents: total polyphenol content, flavonoids, condensed tannins, and water-soluble tannins were evaluated. The pomegranate peel has important ash content (10%±1) and remarkable dietary fibers (71±6.93%) compared to other fruits. The pomegranate peels contain considerable amounts of total polyphenols content (16.48±2.32 g EGA/100g DM), flavonoids (1.30±0.75 g ER/100g DM), water-soluble tannins (6.03±3.97 g ETA/100g DM), and condensed tannins (0.07± 0.01 g ETA/100 g DM). According to achieved results, pomegranate peel's high total polyphenols content, flavonoids, and tannin content have highlighted the potential of using it as a natural food preservative, nutritional supplement, or therapeutic product.
This work deals with theoretical and experimental study of vibrational spectra of thymine. The geometrical parameters (bond lengths and bond angles), harmonic vibrational frequencies, infrared intensities and Raman scattering activities have been calculated using ab- initio MP2 (second-order Møller–Plesset perturbation theory) method and the density functional B3LYP (Becke three-parameter hybrid functional combined with Lee–Yang–Parr correlation functional), X3LYP (extended hybrid functional combined with Lee–Yang–Parr correlation functional) and B3PW91 (Becke three-parameter hybrid functional combined with Perdew-Wang correlation functional) methods employing 6-311++G(d,p) as the basis set. The FTIR (Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy) of the thymine in the range 400–4000 cm−1 in the solid phase has been recorded. A detailed interpretation of the infrared spectra of thymine has been reported. The theoretical optimized geometry parameters and wave numbers are in good agreement with the corresponding experimental values and with results found in most of the literature in most of cases without scaling.
The present study mainly deals with the patients manifesting with mucormycosis (BLACK FUNGUS) in 2ND Wave of COVID-19 patients. Rhino-orbito-cerebral ucormycosis is an uncommon infection caused by the angiotropic fungus belonging to the order Mucorales. The study involves case series of 14 patients with average age group from 35 to 65 years showing male predominance diagnosed and treated with rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis in COVID-19 in Krishna hospital, Karad from April 2021 to May 2021. The symptoms of rhino-orbital cerebral mucormycosis are often non-specific with varying spectrum and severity. All patients studied in this series were non vaccinated for COVID-19. Post vaccination presentation of mucormycosis warrants further study. Hence, early diagnosis and prompt treatment can reduce the mortality and morbidity of this lethal fungal infection.
Potassium plays an important role in plant’s physiological processes, such as photosynthesis, plant reproductive development, and physiological maturity which is connected with crop yield and quality. The aim of the experiment is to determine the best varieties and appropriate potassium doses in improving the yield and quality of chili. The experiment used a factorial randomized completely block format with two factors, i.e. chili varieties (Local and Gada) and potassium (KCl) doses (0, 60, 120, 180 kg ha-1). The result showed that the Gada variety is taller than the local variety, also produced a higher number of fruits per plant. The local variety produced bigger chili fruit and higher productive branches than Gada variety. Application of 120 kg K ha-1 was enough to increase the weight of fruit per plant, a number of fruits per plant, and a number of productive branches in chili. Application of 180 kg K ha-1 in ripe local and Gada fruit resulted from the highest capsaicin content. Unripe fruits of local variety did not produce capsaicin, whereas the highest capsaicin content on unripe Gada fruit was shown in 120 kg K ha-1. The highest ascorbic acid content in the Gada variety resulted from 60 kg K ha-1, meanwhile in local variety was obtained from 120 kg K ha-1.
Taxodium disticum (L.) Rich) belongs to family cupressaceae, it is cultivated as ornamental tree, its wood is used in many industrial wood products for its resilience and resistance to decay, the heartwood is extremely rot and termite resistant. Numerous studies have demonstrated the positive effect of different vitamins on growth and different chemical components in many plants. The experiment was carried out during 2019 and 2020 at the greenhouse of the National Research Centre. The results of this study showed that the foliar application of folic acid at 50 µM significantly increased No. of leaves/ plant, No. of branches/ plant, leaves fresh and dry weights, photosynthetic pigments, flavonoids and phenols in leaves. Whereas, foliar application of α-tocopherol at concentration 200mM significantly increased plant height, stem diameter, stem fresh and dry weights, wood density, carbohydrate content in all plant organs, nutrient elements content (N, P, K) in leaves and stems and crude protein in leaves. Whilst; root length, root fresh and dry weights and nutrient elements content (N, P, K) in roots were significantly affected by application of α-tocopherol at concentration 400mM as compared to untreated plants in both seasons. The obtained results of this study was the positive effect of folic acid and α-tocopherol. Where, the treatment of α-tocopherol showed highly significant in most vegetative and chemical parameters followed by folic acid at 50 µM which showed positive effect in some other parameters.
Youth plays a vital role in selecting the healthcare organization or hospital where they want to be treated. Various criteria are taken into consideration by the youth before selecting a hospital. This study determines the classification of youth and their perception of quality treatment provided by healthcare organizations and hospitals. The study is conducted to determine the relationship between socio-demographic factors and youth perception towards service quality and analyze the healthcare services and physical facilities available at specialty hospitals suitable to youth. The result also shows that there is a significant correlation between youth’s service quality dimensions. The correlation analysis shows a positive correlation between the service quality dimensions such as Psychological Help, Healthcare Brand, Personal Health, Hospital Reputation, Healthcare System, etc. It has been found that most of the youths are unaware of the services provided and other supportive treatment given by the hospitals. Youth patients should need to understand the diseases and choices available to them. They need to be involved to some extent in certain aspects of decision-making in their treatment. The Healthcare industry is also required to manage the service marketing strategies and make sure the level of youth patients’ service provided is of high quality.
Local Moroccan apricot has evolved by seedling in traditional oasis of agricultural systems. This population undergoes a local selection made for adaptation to the environment which is characterized by warm and short winters. When chilling requirements are not sufficiently satisfied during winter, variations in the development cycle are caused, affecting bud development, maturity and fruit production. This work focused on characterizing the bud dormancy and estimating the chilling and heat requirements of seven apricot cultivars conducted under Moroccan climate conditions. Dormancy characterization was approached by one-node-cutting biological test. Three models were used to estimate chilling requirements: 0-7°C, Utah and Dynamic; and Growth Degree Hours model to calculate heat requirements. Phenological stages were observed in field to link period of flowering to chilling requirements of each variety. Results showed that the dates of budburst at orchard are spread out during February for all varieties. Leaf fall was early (late November) for Boum4 and relatively late (December 10th) for Marou4, Guer2 and SKH1. For Delpatriarca and Canino, leaf fall happened late in December 19th and 20th respectively. Different patterns of dormancy dynamics were clearly highlighted among apricot cultivars. Divergences concerned mainly the dormancy chronology and intensity, the transition between endodormancy and ecodormancy and the duration of the endodormancy phase. This later was relatively long for KMG6, Delpatriarca and Boum4 especially during the warm year 2007-2008. The average of chilling requirements for all genotypes are ranged between 40,7-49,7 Chill Portions, 420-554 Chill Hours and 704-864 Chill Units according to Dynamic, 0-7°C and Utah models respectively. Flowering took place between the last fortnight of February and early April depending on each genotype. Thus, this population has low chilling requirements. The heat requirements needed for ﬂowering were ranged between 3800 and 8155 Growing Degree Hours. This study showed the adaptation of some local genotypes to the Moroccan climatic conditions and their similar chilling requirements as the Spanish cultivars, which will be useful for farmers to improve tree inter-pollination for an adequate productivity.
Background: Enterococcus faecalis is usually the most isolated species from oral infections, such as marginal periodontitis, root canals infection, and periradicular abscesses. A number of irrigants are utilized to clean the root canal system. However, new strategies are depending on the natural products rather than standard bactericidal medications.
Methods: Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29,212) were used in all experiments throughout this study, several solvents have been used for the purpose of extraction including standard hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, ethyl alcohol, and water which are abbreviated as fraction 1,2,3,4,5 and 6, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for antibacterial activity assay of different plant extracts (Glycyrrhiza glabra ‘Liquorice’ and Azadirachta indica ‘neem’) was determined by serial dilution. Finally, the effects of each fraction of plant extracts determined on the expression of virulence genes (ace and gelE) in Enterococcus faecalis.
Results: The result showed that Liquorice and Azadirachta indica extracts decreased the expression of virulence genes (gelE and ace) in Enterococcus faecalis. Fraction 5 (ethyl alcohol fraction) of Liquorice extract suppressed the expression of gelE gene while fraction 1 of Azadirachta indica suppressed expression of ace gene.
Conclusions: The present study aimed to determine new therapeutic strategies by evaluating the effects of Liquorice and Azadirachta indica extracts on the expression of virulence genes in Enterococcus faecalis. More studies are required to investigate the effect of different plant extract on virulence genes of Enterococcus faecalis.
Groundnut is considered as a one of the principal economic oilseed crops of the world, which has been exposed extensively to mutagenic treatments for genetic variability induction. The present investigation aims to study the genetic variability, for yield and yield components of some mutant lines derived from two different genotypes i.e., Giza-6 and NC-1 under four levels of gamma rays (0, 100, 200 and 300 Gy). In M1 generation, over the genotypes, significant effects of gamma irradiation doses was detected for pod yield plant-1 and seed yield plant-1, among the various dose of gamma ray treatments, the low level dose (100 Gy) caused the higher increase of pod yield plant -1 (21.87%) and seed yield plant-1 ( 21.4%) as compared to a control treatment. Concerning the M2 generation a wide range of genetic variability was detected for most quantitative studied traits as evidenced by higher mean, range, standard deviation (SD) and coefficient of variability (CV%). Moreover, in M2 generation, the gamma irradiation dose at 100 Gy increased significantly seed yield by 30.9% for Giza-6 and 27.5 % for NC-1 as compared to control treatment. Also, the pod yield in gm. plant-1 was increased by 44.2% for Giza- 6 and 50.6% for NC-1 as compared to control treatment, for the number of seeds per plant, there was a significant increase of 36.8% for Giza 6, and 44.3% for NC1 as compared to control treatment. On the other hand, higher dose of gamma rays (300 GY) caused significant reduction in plant growth and grain yield and the other contribution traits. Further genetic improvement through selection for yield improvement should rely on the pod yield plant-1 and seed number plant-1, these mutants recorded higher genetic variability for all quantitative traits. Seed yield exhibited significantly positive correlation with pod yield plant1 (r=0.91) and seed number plant-1 (r=0.95) for both genotypes. These results clearly indicate that indirect selection for yield in groundnut is possible through simultaneous improvement of these yield components in the promising mutant lines.
The objectives of the present investigation were to assess the effects of fertilizer type (organic and inorganic), reduced nitrogen rate and their interaction on growth, nitrogen use efficiency, seed yield and quality traits of quinoa crop. A two-year field experiment was conducted, using a split split-plot design with three replications. Main plots were devoted to two fertilizer types (compost and Ammonium nitrate), sub-plots to three N rates (71.4, 142.8 and 214.2 kg N/ha), and sub sub-plots to 37 quinoa genotypes. Mean seed yield/ha (SYPH) across seasons was 4728 kg/ha when using the Compost, while it was 1884 kg/ha when using Ammonium nitrate. Superiority of organic to mineral fertilizer in SYPH was accompanied by superiority in seed yield/plant (SYPP) (94.88%), inflorescence weight (317.1%), 1000-seed weight (24.69%), inflorescence diameter (86.27%), biological yield/plant (BYPP) (41.94%) and harvest index (HI) (37.47%). Quinoa plants under the organic fertilizer were more N efficient than under the mineral fertilizer by 95.85% for economic nitrogen use efficiency (NUEe), 39.80% for biological nitrogen use efficiency (NUEb) and 8.83% for nitrogen utilization efficiency (NUTE). The seed contents of protein, oil and ash were higher under organic fertilizer than under chemical fertilizer by 13.35, 3.82 and 19.06%, respectively. Reduction of nitrogen rate from 214.2 kg N/ha caused a significant reduction in SYPH (13.25 and 15.35%), SYPP (9.17 and 13.75%), BYPP (0.07 and 4.60%), HI (9.11 and 9.63%), inflorescences/plant (9.60 and 17.58%) under 142.8 and 71.4 kg N/ha, respectively. Reduction in such traits was more pronounced under mineral than organic fertilizer. The highest SYPH was recorded under the highest N rate of organic fertilizer, but the lowest was recorded under the lowest N rate of chemical fertilizer. The highest NUEe and NUEb values were recorded under the lowest N rate in the organic fertilizer.
Citrus fruits belong to thefamily Rutaceae produced all around the world.Different fungal pathogens including Penicillium digitatum is the causal agent of green mold disease consider as the major postharvest disease of citrus with economic losses of 10 to 100 billion dollars throughout the world. Medicinal desert plants extract is used as a bio-control agent against the postharvest diseases of fruits. Different products are obtained from these desert plants and are being used for medicinal purposes and also proven good to control different diseases in fruit plants. They contain antifungal properties that cease fungal growth through different ways. These plants extracts are used because they do not contain any side effects and control fungal growth. These medicinal plant extracts are also cheap in their cost and former can obtain them easily from the market and their disease controlling percentage is also much higher. At 200ppm C. colocynthis inhibit 79.33% growth rate. As compared to C. colocynthis, Capparis decidua has minimum inhibitor effect on Penicillium digitatum growth. During management different plants extractwere used for fruits coating. Completely randomized design CRD was used in lab and for greenhouse experiments. For comparing the differences between the means least significant difference test (LSD) was used at the 5% variation. The ultimate aim of the present research is to replace synthetic fungicides by using natural products to increase theshelf life of fruits, their economic value by reducing residual effects of fungicides. Citrullus colocynthis has strong inhibition effect against Penicillium digitatum.
An efficient micropropagation protocol was developed for a well-known Ayurvedic medicinal plant Hygrophila auriculata (Kokilasha). Three different explants – leaf disc, nodal and petiole were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with various concentrations of plant growth regulators (PGR). High frequency shoot bud proliferation (96%) was obtained from leaf disc cultured on medium supplemented with BAP (1 mg/L) and IAA (0.5 mg/L). The type of explant and combination of PGR played significant role in the development of shoot regeneration. BAP concentration, significantly affected the microshoots formation. However, media devoid of PGR enhanced shoot elongation. Rooting of elongated shoots was achieved best on half strength MS medium supplemented with IBA (0.5 mg/L). The rooted plantlets were successfully acclimatized in greenhouse with 90 % of survival ratio. This in vitro regeneration protocol can be used for rapid propagation and conservation of Hygrophila auriculata.
MISBAH ZULFQAR, HAFIZ SAAD BIN MUSTAFA, . EJAZ-UL-HASAN, SHAZIA SAEED, RIZWANA QAMAR, AHMAD NAWAZ GILL, TARIQ MAHMOOD, AHSAN MOHYO UD DIN, MUHAMMAD TANVEER AHMAD KALYAR, SAJID ALI, AMIR HAMEED, JAFAR SALIM, ABDUL WAKEEL
Edible oils are largest agricultural commodity in Pakistan. Brassica is the major edible oil producing crop in the country. Different Canola varieties and hybrids have been introduced by research organization and seed companies. However, there is dire need to identify Canola varieties and hybrids suitable for different agroclimatic zones of the Punjab (Pakistan). A study was conducted for performance evaluation of nine Canola varieties and hybrids in fifteen different agroclimatic locations of the Punjab (Pakistan). Data of each cultivar for seed yield, protein content and oil content were recorded from all locations. After basic statistical analysis, data were further evaluated through Additive Main Effect and Multiplicative Interaction (AMMI) biplot analysis for testing the adaptability and stability. The results interpreted that rapeseed cultivars performed better in cooler climatic region in terms of seed yield and oil content. Sandal canola, Super canola and Hyola-401 showed wider adaptability and performed well in all agroclimatic region. However, AARI Canola performed well in hot climatic region and gave good seed yield and protein content.
Acetaminophen (Paracetamol) or PCM is the most commonly used pain-relieving and antipyretic drug in the world. It is easily available in the market without any recommendation or prescription from physicians. World Health Organization (WHO) considers Paracetamol to be an important medicine in a basic health system. This drug is available worldwide in different names like is Panadol, Calpol, Dolo-650, Tylenol, PCM, Panadol etc. The pharmacodynamics of synthetic medicines is not known to all. To reduce pain and fever people are consuming Paracetamol (Acetaminophen). Since ancient times, many forest dwellers and the local people of North India (Uttarakhand) are using ethnomedicinal plants to cure various ailments. This study was conducted to document and analyze the importance of the traditional usage of ethnomedicinal plants. Ginger, Lemongrass, black pepper, beetroot, garlic, cinnamon, turmeric, cloves, herbal tea are easily available and can be used as an alternative for Paracetamol. A total of one hundred thirty-seven participants were questioned after getting consent from all participants and all ethical issues were considered. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 21 software. The results show that 71.2% of people agree that too much use of Paracetamol for prolonged periods can damage the liver and other vital organs and 72.3% of people admit that it is important to know the toxicity of overdose of Paracetamol. The study reveals that curative ethnomedicinal plants are better alternatives as they fulfill all the parameters like the presence of antioxidants, antibacterial properties and dissolved alkaloids in them. We need to create more awareness among Gen Z about traditional herbs. This study is based on practical knowledge and application of Science and can be easily implementable.
The aim of this investigation was to estimation the effect of three nitrogen levels, i.e. 60, 80 and 100 kg N/fed (one feddan=4200m2), three seeding rates, i.e. 40, 60 and 80 kg grain/fed and three wheat varieties, i.e. Giza-171, Gemmiza-12 and Shandawel-1 under the conditions of Agricultural and Experiments Research Station at Giza, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Egypt through 2018/2019 and 2019/2020 wheat growing seasons. The experimental design was a split- split plot in randomized complete block arrangement with three replications. Nitrogen levels were allocated to the main plots, while the sub plots were assigned for seeding rates. Wheat varieties were distributed at random in the sub-sub plots. Each sub-sub plots area 4 m2. The most important results obtained were as follows: nitrogen fertilizer levels had significant effect on time of 50% heading, plant height, and number of tillers/m2, biological yield and straw yield in both seasons. The highest values for the previous mentioned traits were obtained at either 100 or 80 kg N/fed. Seeding rates had also significant effect on the most of studied traits which gave the highest values at either 60 or 80 kg grains/fed in both seasons. Moreover, all studied traits significantly affected among verities in both seasons where Giza-171 and Gemmiza-12 verities surpassed Shandawel-1 variety in the most of studied traits. The most of studied interactions significantly affected one or more of studied traits in both seasons. The optimum treatment for producing the maximum straw yield was either Giza-171 or Gemmiza-12+either 80 or 60 kg grains/fed +100kg N/fed in both seasons, respectively.
Our aim is to evaluate the behavioral effects of infection and combination toxicity - infection in adult Wistar rats and the protective effect of an antioxidant (the curcumin) on neurobehavioral alterations and complications. Toxicity was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of Formaldehyde (FA) at a dose of 10 mg/kg.
The administration of Formaldehyde which is revealed, on one hand, the effects of a single intra-peritoneal injection on anxiety behaviors and the other hand the protective role of antioxidant (curcumin) on FA-induced disorders. Behavioral test in the open field (OF) revealed that animals treated with FA exhibited an anxious behavior and an alteration in locomotive and exploratory activities when compared to control. The curcumin, a natural antioxidant was administered orally (gastric gavages) at a dose of 60 mg / kg. This administration reduces anxiety and the therapeutic benefits of curcumin against the deficits caused by formaldehyde.
Recent studies show the need to utilize food wastes as alternative resources for pectin production. In this research, pectin was produced from dried ripe pineapple peel flours (DRPP) mixed with dried orange peel flour (DOP) in the ratio: 10:1, 10:2, 10:3, 10:4, and 10:5. The products were labelled as A1, A2, A3, A4 and A5 respectively. Another set of pectin was produced from mixtures of dried unripe pineapple peel flours (DUPP) with DOP in the ratio: 10:1, 10:2, 10:3, 10:4 and 10:5. They were labelled as B1, B2, B3, B4 and B5 respectively. Standard methods were used to determine % yield, % ash content and mineral content of the pectin products. The determined minerals are: Na, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and P. Percentage yield of DRPP-DOP pectins ranged from 6.32% (A1) to 15.21% (A4) and 6.20% (B5) to 14.80% (B3) for DUPP-DOP pectins. In DRPP-DOP samples, Zn, ranged from 4.56 ± 0.03 ppm (A1) to 4.93±0.02 ppm (A4); Mg ranged from 0.81±0.02 ppm (A1) to 6.77 ppm (A4); Ca ranged from 2.05 ± 0.09 ppm (A1) to 5.16±0.18 A4; K ranged from 3.03±0.03 ppm (A1) to 9.19±0.17 ppm (A4). In DUPP-DOP pectins; Zn ranged from 2.43±0.00 ppm (B1) to 5.03±0.07 ppm (B5); Mg ranged from 1.43±0.02 ppm (B1) to 6.86±0.00 ppm (B4); Ca ranged from 3.77±0.40 ppm (B1) to 8.03±0.26 ppm (B4) and K ranged from 6.34±0.20 ppm (B1) to 12.96±0.54 ppm (B4). These show that some of these minerals are higher in DUPP-DOP than in DRPP-DOP pectin samples.
In vitro techniques are an imperative approach for overcoming the abiotic and biotic stresses in Citrus macroptera Montr., a commercially and medicinally important endangered species of North-eastern India. The present investigation deals with the indirect organogenesis of this endangered species using leaf and seed as explant. The explants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) & WPM (Woody Plant media), containing 30g/L sucrose and 7g/L agar supplemented with different concentrations and combination of different phytohormones 2,4-Dicholorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 6-Benzylaminopurine (BA), 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), Thidiazuron (TDZ). The maximum callus induction was observed from the leaf explant of Citrus macroptera on MS medium supplemented with 2,4-D (1.0mg/L), BA (1.5mg/L), and TDZ(0.5mg/L). Maximum shoot regeneration response was observed (85%) in WPM media supplemented with BA, Kinetin (KN), and NAA with (1.0), (1.0), (0.25) mg/l respectively. Rooting was optimised in MS supplemented with NAA (1.5 mg/L) with mean number of roots 0.90 ± 0.54. The in vitro raised plantlets of Citrus macroptera were assessed using Random amplified Polymorphic DNA(RAPD) marker and the monomorphic banding pattern indicates the regenerated plantlets are genetically stable. The standardised protocol can be used to restore the endangered Citrus macroptera and can be propitious in propagating this cultivar.
Sinapis alba or white mustard is a medicinal plant that belongs to the brassicaceae family. It is traditionally used to draw blood away from underlying infections and to act as a counterirritant. The aim of this study is to evaluate the oral acute toxicity of aqueous extract from Sinapis alba on male Swiss Albino mice. Animals were divided into three groups, each group containing three mice. The first group received normal saline and was used as control; Mice of the second and third groups received the plant extract at doses of 2 g/kg and 5 g/kg body weight of animals, respectively. The mice were monitored for 14 days for their general behavior, adverse effects and mortality. The results showed that no death was recorded among animals; Furthermore, the extract did not cause any changes in body and organs weights. Although S. alba extract was found to be safe on kidneys, it caused an increase in alanine aminotransferase levels.
Uranium is released from mining and milling facilities into the environment. It considered as a dangerous heavy metal because of its chemical toxicity rather than its radioactivity. Biosorption of heavy metals is an effective process not only for nuclear industry but also for cleaning of the environment. This work aimed to study the effect of uranium on immobilized Scenedesmus and Nostoc algae on the scale of pigments (chlorophyll a, b and carotenoids), lipids, and surface characterization. Uranium treatment resulted in inhibiting the biosynthesis of Chl a and Chl b, whereas the carotenoids content was stimulated as compared with control for both tested algae. The treated Scenedesmus and Nostoc samples resulted in increasing the total lipid content (10 and 7.4 %) as compared with their control (5.7 and 6.9 %) respectively. The morphological changes of immobilized Scenedesmus and Nostoc beads before and after uranium treatment were detected using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Appearance of uranium peak on EDX spectra confirmed the uranium biosorption by the algal beads. Also, SEM images showed a rough and dynamic nature of algal beads compared to the smooth and uniform one of the untreated samples.
Lentil (Lens culinaris Medikus subsp. culinaris) is produced in Morocco under rainfall conditions in semi-arid areas. As a food legume, lentil crop plays a great role in increasing soil efficiency and food security for low-income farmers. However, its mean yield remains low and instable mainly because of climate change. The current investigation aimed to identify among eight released varieties, those having wide adaptation with high and stable yield performance across nine variable climatic conditions using combining analysis of AMMI-GGE biplot. Experiment trials were conducted in three rainfall locations during three growing years. ANOVA analysis revealed a significant effect of environments (E) (68.7%) in terms of locations (16.4%), years (19.5%) and location by year interaction (32.9%); and of the interaction of genotype by environment (GE) (13.4%) on grain yield and yield components. Stepwise multiple linear regression method identified total grains per plant (GrPL) as the direct determining yield components across environments with variable contribution magnitude ranging from 62% (E3) to 97% (E4). Thus, GrPL might be used as desirable selection criterion in lentil breeding program. AMMI analysis explained the genotype difference responses across environments. The two first interaction principal components (IPCA-1) and (IPCA-2) explained respectively 57.5% and 21.3% of the interaction of GE. The GGE biplot analysis identified two mega-environments (E2, E5, E9) and (E1, E3, E4, E7) representing highland, semi-arid and favorable rainfall environments where Bichette and Bakria varieties exhibited respectively wide adaptation. Varieties L24 and Chakouf exhibited a specific adaptation respectively to favorable (E6) and semi-arid (E8) rainfall environments. Considering stability analysis, yield performance of L56 and Zaaria were contemplated as stables.
Chickpea is very significant among legumes, due to its nutritional value, growing and consuming all over the world. However, due to non- availability of herbicide tolerant chickpea genotypes and selective post-emergent herbicide weeds are effecting upto 80% of grain yield. Series of experiments were conducted from 2017-2020 at two locations Faisalabad (irrigated region) and Kallurkot (Thal, arid region) to evaluate 600 chickpea genotypes both (Desi+Kabuli) for herbicide tolerance and five herbicides (Carfentrazone 20g/A, Flumentusulum 30g/A, Penoxaden 330ml/A, Meteribuzine 250g/A, Isoproturon 800g/A) were tested to identify selective post emergent herbicide. Flumentusulum effectively controlled Asphodelus tenuifolius in Thal region and Chenopodium murale and Chenopodium album in irrigated region without effecting chickpea plant and grain yield. The grain yield losses of chickpea due to weeds in flumentusulum were up to 14.8% and controlled 98.6% of weeds. The Kabuli lines K-16025, K-204015, K-70008 and desi chickpea lines D-16004, D-05002 and D-89129 indicated tolerance against fluementusulum, carfentrazone and isoproturon and indicated high grain yield. The yield comparison at two locations manifested high grain yield at Pulses Research Institute Faisalabad (irrigated region).
The experiment was conducted during the winter agricultural season 2020-2021 in one of the unheated greenhouses with dimensions (9 x 50) m and an area of 450 m² belonging to the fields of the department of horticulture at the college of agriculture and marshes - Dhi Qar University, south of Iraq, with the aim of studying the effect of adding humic acid, spraying some foliar treatments, on chemical components of fruits of two hybrids of hot pepper plants (Barbarian F1and Kizil F1).
Experiment included 30 factorial treatments which were the possible combinations of two hybrids(Barbarian F1and Kizil F1), three concentrations of humic acid 0, 1, 2 g. l-1 and five foliar spray treatments (aqueous extract of jujuba leaves at a concentration (75) g. l-1, aqueous extract of pomegranate peels at a concentration of 5 ml. l-1, calcium at a concentration of 1.5 ml. l-1, arginine acid 200 mg. l-1 in addition to control treatment (spraying with distilled water only). Factorial experiment was carried out according to the split-split plot design in R.C.B.D with three replicates. The results were analyzed by the analysis of variance and mean values were compared using the Revised Least Significant Difference Test at 0.05 probability. Results showed that the fruits of Barbarian F1 hybrid excelled in the concentration of total chlorophyll and total soluble solids ,while fruits of Kizil F1 hybrid , were superior in phenols, capsaicin. Adding humic acid at the concentration of 2 g. l-1 led to significant increase in the content fruits of total soluble solids and vitamin C, and the concentration of 1 g. l-1 caused an increment in concentration of total chlorophyll , while the concentration of o g. l-1 was superior in increasing the concentration of phenols and capsaicin in fruits. Spraying aqueous extract of jujuba leaves at the concentration of (75) g. l-1 , arginine acid at the concentration of 200 mg. l-1 and calcium at the concentration of 1.5 ml. l-1 were the best in increasing the concentration of total chlorophyll and vitamin C, while arginine acid at 200 mg. l-1 caused significant increase in total soluble solids.In additions, extract of jujuba leaves caused significant increase in the concentration of capsaicin in fruits.
The capital key that encourages the farmers to use the compost to amend their soils is its quality. For this reason, we have aimed to confirm the final quality of the composts produced from phosphate washing sludge, leachate from landfill and green waste, from the point of view of radioactivity, phytotoxicity and different forms of phosphorus. The results of the concentrations of 238U, 232Th, 222Rn and 220Rn in the produced composts the equivalent doses to the farmer skin’s coming from the application of the compost were in conformity with the norms recommended by the International Commission of Radiological Protection. Concerning phytotoxicity, the results showed that composts based on 50 % phosphate washing sludge could be the best treatment to valorize the leachate and obtain mature compost. The monitoring of the different forms of phosphorus during the composting process, showed that the biological valorization of phosphate washing sludge increased significantly the phosphorus fractions immediately assimilable by plants and the labile phosphorus reserve protected from fixation in soils; the consequence is an important source of phosphorus released in the long term for crops and soils after the application of these composts. Using phosphate washing sludge, the proposed method to valorize the leachate and green waste will be a rewarding and simple strategy to enrich the Moroccan soils in organic matter and phosphorus without any danger for the environment and human health.
Field experiments were conducted in Gemmeiza Agriculture Research Station Farm, Gharbeia Governorate, Agriculture Research Center, located between Latitude 30° 58′ 56″ N Longitude 30° 57′ 8″ E during summer growing season of 2020/2021 to elucidate the effects of soil available water depletion and soil differences in organic fertilization (chicken manure and water treatments residual) on maize yield and their residual impacts on soil physico-chemical characteristics and water use efficiency. The experiments were designed as split plot with three replicates. The main plots were occupied by available water depletion at (I1) 40, (I2) 60 and (I3) 80% of available water depletion, while sub plots were devoted to inorganic and organic fertilization. (T1) control (100% recommend nitrogen dose), (T2) water treatments residuals (5 ton ha-1) + (75% recommend nitrogen dose), (T3) chicken manure (5 ton ha-1) + (50% recommend nitrogen dose) and (T4) water treatments residuals (5 ton ha-1) + chicken manure (5 ton ha-1) + (25% recommend nitrogen dose). The main results can be summarized as follows: Irrigation at 40 and 60% available water depletion(AWD) and combination of water treatment residuals and chicken manure improved the water use efficiency in ameliorating the soil physical and chemical properties, and could be considered as an ameliorating material for the clay soil. Results showed that, irrigation at 40 and 60% (AWD) and application of chicken manure (CK) and water treatments residuals WTR mixture gave a significant increase in yield (grain and straw), yield components (day to 50% silk , plant height , ear height , and 100 kernels weight), crud protein, N, P and K concentration as compared to the other treatments. Results indicated that the highest seasonal water applied and water consumptive value was recorded at 40% available soil moisture depletion (ASMD) treatment, while the lowest one was recorded at 80% ASMD treatment. The highest values of the irrigation water applied (IWA), were found to be 6917.05 and 6777.11 m3 ha-1 for the (I1) treatment in both growing seasons, respectively. Consumptive water use (CWU) was increased in the case of more frequent irrigation as in 40% (AWD) than the other two irrigation treatments. Also, the highest values of water use efficiency (WUE) (1.43 and 1.40 kg/m3) and water productivity (WP) (1.20 and 1.16) by using 60% of (AWD) respectively.
Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L) which considered as one of the most important flower, gardens aromatic crop plants originates in the Mediterranean region. This study was designed to evaluate the phenolic, flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity of Dianthus caryophyllus ethanolic extract. However, DPPH and β-carotene bleaching methods were applied to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activity. The polyphenolic and flavonoids contents of Dianthus caryophyllus ethanolic extract were found to be 188.217 μg GAE/mg extract and 22.2 μg QE/mg extract, respectively. The scavenger effect of the extract against DPPH radicals showed IC50 value of 0.11 ± 0.001 mg/ml. The β-carotene bleaching assay indicated a strong inhibition percentage of the lipid peroxidation with a value of 81.075±1.436. It can be concluded that D. caryophyllus extracts possessed higher antioxidant activities.
The article presents the result on the influence of various planting schemes of row spacing of 60 and 70 cm, between plants from 3 to 15 cm on the growth, development, and yield of peas of the Umid variety, in the conditions of irrigated meadow-gray soils of the Zarafshan Valley. The yield varied depending on the row spacing and the thickness of the bush, while the maximum distance between the rows of the crop yield was 22.7 kg/ha with a planting pattern of 60 cm 60x6. The minimum yield was 14.2 kg/ha with a scheme of 70x15 cm.
Development of high yielding rice varieties was crucial in combating the hunger in India and achieving food security. Molecular profiling would help in varietal identification and assessment of genetic purity. SSR markers are useful molecular markers to differentiate rice varieties at genotypic level. Present study aimed to establish molecular profiles of Acharya NG Ranga Agricultural University (ANGRAU) rice varieties using 48 SSR markers and to detect presence of genes for Bacterial Leaf Blight, blast resistance and phosphorous uptake (Pup1) using gene specific markers. Polymorphic information content (PIC) value ranged from 0.370 to 0.890 indicating that the markers selected for establishment of molecular profiles were informative for cultivar identification. DNA barcodes for each rice variety were prepared using 12 highly polymorphic markers. Unique alleles identified in 77 genotypes were cultivar specific. Cluster analysis revealed that 111 genotypes were grouped into two major clusters at 11.6 % similarity coefficient and each cluster has 3 sub-clusters indicating wide variation among the ANGRAU rice genotypes. Identified distinguishable markers for rice varieties with grain types similar to the popular mega varieties (BPT 5204, Swarna, MTU 1010) would help in assessment of genetic purity. Presence of genes for multiple traits BLB +blast, BLB+phosphorus uptake, blast+ phosphorous uptake, BLB+blast+ phosphorous uptake were found in 33 rice varieties implied the need for focused research for gene deployment in future breeding programmes. Choice of diverse parents having multiple genes for BLB, blast resistance and Pup1 using modern breeding techniques would result in high yielding rice varieties with reduced use of pesticides and phosphorous fertilizers.
Banana is an important and one of the oldest cultivated crops all over the world. It is an herbaceous plant of Musa genus. Banana is highly nutritious crop possessing high amount of potassium, fibre and carbohydrate. Apart from its nutritional value, all parts of banana plant have medicinal properties. In recent times, banana peel has been utilized in various industrial application including bio-fuel production, cosmetics and paper and pulp industry etc. Microbial and bacterial contamination is a very big problem during in vitro propagation of banana. The cost of banana production is high due to these contaminants. The objective of this study was to identify, isolate and to characterize bacterial contamination from in vitro banana tissue culture and to check the ability of different antibiotics to control these bacterial contaminations. Different morphological and biochemical tests were performed to identify the bacterial isolates. In the present study, Bacillus pumilus was isolated and identified as major contaminant bacteria in banana tissue culture raised plants. Further, three different antibiotics i.e., streptomycin, Tetracycline and Rifamycin were tested at different concentrations i.e., 50 µl and 75 µl during different time intervals to determine the efficiency of tested antibiotics for elimination of bacterial contaminants. Results concluded that streptomycin, tetracycline and rifamycin each at 50 µl of concentration successfully supressed the growth of identified bacteria while only rifamycin at both concentrations inhibited the growth of B. pumilus completely. These findings will be highly useful to achieve higher production of banana tissue culture raised plants.
Natural ingredients have been widely used for medicinal purposes, including mulberry (Morus alba L.) and agarwood (Aquilaria malaccensis L.). Mulberry is believed to treat diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, while agarwood is efficacious for lowering blood sugar, cholesterol and refreshing the body. The safety and toxic effects that may be caused in the use of natural medicines must still be considered. In this case, the safety of a natural substance as a traditional medicine and its toxic effects can be identified through a toxicity test. The toxicity test in this study aims to determine the LC50 value of mulberry leaf extract and gaharu leaf extract using the Zebra Fish Embryo Toxicity (ZFET) method which was determined by observing the development of embryos that had been exposed to the active extract for 24 hours, 48 hours, 72 hours and 96 hours post fertilization (hpf). In zebrafish embryotoxicity test, the percentage of coagulation and embryo development abnormalities was obtained with an LC50 value of 293.089 g/mL in mulberry leaf extract and 207.96 g/mL in agarwood leaf extract. Both extracts showed LC50 values in the range of 100-1000 g/mL which means they are practically non-toxic.
HAFIZ SAAD BIN MUSTAFA, IQTIDAR HUSSAIN, MUHAMMAD ZUBAIR AL- FAISAL, HAFIZ BASHEER AHMAD, MUHAMMAD NAEEM KHAN, JAFAR SALIM, ASRAR HUSSAIN SHAH, ALI AFZAL, MUHAMMAD RASHID, ABDUL WAKEEL, ALLAH NAWAZ, MISBAH ZULFQAR, RIZWAN KHURSHEED, MUHAMMAD ALTAF, IDREES AHMAD
Chickpea is an important pulse and main crop of water scarce areas. At the research field of Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan (Pakistan), a study was undertaken during 2017-2018 to evaluate nine different chickpea genotypes in a randomized complete block design laid out in four replicates. Five Desi varieties (Karak-1, Nifa-2005, Bhakkar-2011, Thal-2006 and Punjab-2008) and four Kabuli varieties (Noor-91, Hassan-2000, Noor-2009 and CM-2008) of chickpea were used in the trial. Analysis of variance showed significant variation for all the studied attributes excluding 50% flowering and number of grains pod-1. The pair wise comparisons also indicated significant difference among varieties for most of yield contributing factors. Among Desi varieties studied in the trial, NIFA-2005 had maximum branches (14.20), pods plant-1(81.2), grains pod-1 (1.13), grain yield (2178.40 kg ha-1), harvest index (35.22 %) and benefit-cost ratio (4.75). In case of Kabuli chickpea varieties, CM-2008 had highest grains pod-1 (1.11), grain yield (1696.80 kg ha-1), harvest index (28.62 %) and benefit- cost ratio (4.68). Therefore, it is recommended that NIFA-2005 for Desi and CM-2008 for Kabuli can be cultivated to get better yield performance under agro-climatic conditions of Dera Ismail Khan (Pakistan).
Seed priming has the potential to speed up emergence rate and vegetative growth, an effective way to develop early maturing varieties under prevalent environmental conditions. Ascorbate seed priming boosts up vegetative growth in fodder sorghum production. The present research work was planned to evaluate and identify an accurate level of ascorbic acid for seed priming to get maximum green biomass yield and related characters in ten cultivated varieties of fodder sorghum. To achieve consistent contents of ascorbate, sorghum varieties were treated with three levels of ascorbic acid i.e., 75 ppm, 100 ppm, and 125ppm, and sown under controlled conditions. To check the results, seeds of all varieties were also sown under ascorbate-free soil media as control. Effectiveness of ascorbic acid level was measured by recording morphological traits such as emergence percentage, speedy shoot, root length, proliferation in FSW, FRW, DSW and DRW, PBY, protein and fiber contents in leaves and stem of plants. The mean comparison showed that genotypes, treatments, and their interactions were significant for all traits. The results revealed that genotypes 6197 and B-203 performed better under ascorbic acid priming and might be valuable in further breeding programs.
The in vitro assaying of aqueous extracts of five different plants viz., Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Curcuma longa, Mentha spicata and Zingiber officinale was tested at different concentrations viz.,10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 per cent in comparison with control (without extracts) in the laboratory for their efficacy against the pathogen Alternaria alternata using Poison Food Technique. All tested plant extracts were found to produce the antifungal activities although the rate of inhibition of test fungus varied with the different plant extracts and concentrations. The results revealed that all the tested plant extracts inhibited growth of pathogenic fungus but Allium sativum has shown best antifungal activity at all the concentrations against the pathogenic fungi. It was also observed that the effectiveness of extracts increased with the increase in extract concentration and the maximum inhibition in mycelial growth was found at highest concentration.
In order to obtain a purely bio-organic fertilizer (free of chemicals and composed entirely of natural by-products), we opted for its preservation from any possible alteration by lactic acid bacteria “LAB”.
Three strains of LABs among 18, previously selected from fermented food products, were screened for their antifungal activity after their identification by 16S rDNA sequencing. These strains were identified as Lactiplantibacillus plantarum NRRL B-14768T “L. plantarum” and Levilactobacillus brevis ATCC 14869T “L. brevis”.
Four fungi susceptible to spoilage a fertilizer composed of olive mill wastewater and rice hulls were used in this study: Fusarium culmorum, Aspergilus Niger, Alternaria alternata, Penicillium sp.
Besides usual methods for detection of antifungal activity: the plug agar technique and the disc diffusion, a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods were used to evaluate this activity named as double layer agar well.
Plug agar method proved that L. plantarum and L. brevis have an antifungal activity against all fungi except A. alternata. Therefore, statistical analysis of the data of disc- diffusion method revealed the same results as the double layer agar well technique. L. brevis displayed a hyper antifungal activity against F. culmorum with a maximum diameter of inhibition zone of 32 mm and A. Niger with a diameter of 15 mm. Moreover, L. plantarum was able to inhibit the growth of Penicillium sp by the three different methods, while no inhibition zone was observed for L. brevis against this fungus.
The results indicated that the combination of the two LABs, L. plantarum and L. brevis is the best alternative to ensure the conservation of the bioorganic fertilizer against fungi that could spoil it.
Orchids are ornamental plants in the superior collection of Liwa Botanical Garden, West Lampung. One of the largest types of orchids is the members of the genus Dendrobium. However, until now, many collections have not been identified. This study aims to determine the identification of Dendrobium based on the anatomical characters of leaf stomata in Liwa Botanical Garden. Four Dendrobium accessions were collected, namely CAT140, CAT 144, CAT 274, and IR015. The results of the observation of nine anatomical characters on the upper and lower surfaces of the leaves indicate that the leaf organs have high variations. Accessions IR015, CAT 140, and CAT 274 have stomata only on the lower surface, while CAT 144 has stomata on the upper and lower surfaces. This difference is due to the position of the leaves attached to the stem. CAT 144 forming an angle of 45°C, while the others open horizontally. In case of IR015, CAT 140, and CAT 274, the upper surface of the leaves is only composed of epidermis which is composed of cells which are irregular and pentagonal in shape. The highest number was in CAT 274 because the epidermal cells was smaller than IR015 and CAT 144. The types of stomata in all types were the same, namely tetracytic in the form of stomata surrounded by 4 neighboring cells. The stomata are kidney-shaped and the epidermal cells is irregular, pentagonal, and hexagonal in shape. The results of this study are expected to provide basic information in identifying natural orchids and conservation efforts in Liwa Botanical Garden.
The purpose of this study is to identify the sugar beet crop as one of the most important and successful field crops for cultivation in the new lands as well as the product is the most important strategic commodities which is sugar. In order to provide the required quantities of sugar to meet the needs of consumers, it was necessary to expand its cultivation, especially in reclaiming poor and saline calcareous soils.
As for obtaining a high yield and good- quality product, modern technologies and good agricultural practices must be available. Therefore, many successful agricultural processes have contribute to improve productivity and quality including for example, the best sowing date, the suitable environmental conditions,, appropriate cultivating distance, optimal use of fertilizers with improving the efficiency of irrigation use and the usage of selected varieties. These factors had a positive impact on the physiological state and good return on productivity and quality. Accordingly, we can conclude that the sugar beet crop can grow well in the new lands if the appropriate production factors are available.
Agricultural production contributes significantly to national income in Egypt. Also, farming activities remain the main task of a large population. One of the ambitious national plans has already started and will continue in the next few years to provide agricultural guidance with an area of 1.5 million acres. The main objective of this project is not only to overcome the food gap, textiles, oil and other human necessities, but also to create social settlements in the prospective areas outside the densely populated Nile Valley and Delta outskirts. Among the vital benefits of agricultural extension is the promotion of employment opportunities for a number of groups of the population that struggle with unemployment problems.
The strategy of this mega project focused on large areas in the Western Desert bordering the Nile Valley. However, large areas are included in the northern desert coast.
Crop production in this soil is limited due to: First, the high content of CaCO3 and its effect on reducing soil fertility and nutrient availability. Secondly, the composition of soil crust and its impact on the emerging seed and holder crop and thirdly low humidity range available. Therefore, it was necessary to study the factors that lead to increasing the containment of water and nutrients for this soil such as cultivation methods, fertilization, the use of micronutrients, organic fertilizer and the use of farm residues, types of machines, irrigation method, appropriate crops and others Managemen.
Wheat is grown worldwide and staple food of large population both in developing as well as in developed countries. Increasing population demands its increased production every year but changing climate conditions, global warming and water shortage stagnant its production and made serious threats to food security. Drought is a very common environmental stresses that restricted the growth of the plant and to stand against the drought condition plant has different morphological, physiological, biochemical, anatomical and molecular developments. It includes closing of stomata, decrease in the activity of photosynthesis, root signal detection and loss of turgor pressure, osmotic adjustment, decrease in water potential, decreasing rate of CO2 conductance and internal concentration, increase in root shoot ratio, production of antioxidant species and DREBS transcription factor. Wheat genotypes with higher osmoregulators and lower malondialdehyde (MDA) perform better in water shortage condition. By understanding these mechanisms researchers are trying to develop new wheat genotypes those having less amount of water use. Different management practices are also useful to combat the drought stress like sowing early maturing varieties, irrigation management, weeds managements.
A robust quality management system in the form of National Certification System for Tissue Culture Plants (NCS-TCP) became an effective platform during the last one and a half decade for facilitating production and distribution of virus free and quality tissue culture plants/propagules to Indian farmers. BCIL has played a key role in establishment of NCS-TCP under the support of the Department of Biotechnology, Government of India and managed the NCS-TCP efficiently. Stakeholders have witnessed impact of NCS-TCP on commercial plant tissue culture vertical and its sustainability which made this quality management system very popular among the stakeholders. Tissue culture industry has felt its importance and provided feedback that NCS-TCP significantly contributed in increasing their production capacity, refining the layout of production facility, improving efficiency of operators, reducing contamination during in vitro operation, decreasing mortality of tissue cultured plants, increasing demand of tissue culture plants, and enhancing visibility of companies. . Industry also realized that this robust quality management system is necessary for sustainability and growth of tissue culture operation. NCS-TCP has reached to the level where it can further expand by accrediting more companies under recognized pool, certifying 100% produce of all such tissue culture companies, including more plant species under certification, and become one window support system for ultimate benefits of farming community towards better yield and enhanced income.
Development of advanced and enhanced cultivars with desirable, suitable and adaptive characteristics by a plant breeder is based on genetic diversity. Novel breeding techniques in crop plants are developed with improvement in genetic engineering, molecular technology and it is integrated with mutation breeding to create genetic variation in complicated traits. Many targets specified changes can be done with mutation breeding comparing to conventional breeding. Recent methodologies like CRISPR Cas9 mediated mutagenesis, in-vitro mutagenesis and mutation by gamma rays are highlighted in this article. Next generation sequencing (NGS) techniques are advanced and using these millions of mutations can be detected in the shortest time as possible, therefore considered more convenient and profitable. In addition, the combination of induced mutations and sequencing complete set of genomes which provide rigid principles for altering phenotype either by mutagenesis or by altering genes. In addition, complete information about the genome sequence of various crops can be obtained. It is possible to use targeted genome editing technology as the preferred method for constructing the desired mutations. Mutations expected to play a critical function in improving crops and ameliorating livelihood in the future an even greater role for the success of fruit breeding.
Azadirachta indica, commonly known as neem, a wonder plant offers solutions to almost all the health and environmental related problems of human beings. The bark, leaves and seeds are used to make medicine. This review includes a detailed analysis of its physical, chemical properties and also addresses the utility of various parts. It also encompasses its bioadsorption and various pharmacological properties. With has so many unbelievable qualities, recently Azadirachta indica also had its impact during Covid-19 pandemic for home remedies with wonderful results. It is well known that it works without any side effects (in adequate amount) as compared to other popular treatments. In this review, we also focused its anti-viral quality for the benefit of the society at large.